Introduction to Personality
The purpose of this paper is to examine the personality theory by defining personality, examining theoretical approaches in studying personality, and analyzing factors that may influence an individual’s personality development. In defining personality psychologists direct not just to the role people play, but on diversified definitions. The theoretical approach use to study personality consists of observation, consistency, and accuracy for the personality theory to generate research. In analyzing factors that may influence an individual’s personality development is the reflection of an author’s assumptions about humanity. Assumptions that provide several broad dimensions that differs different personality theorists (Feist & Feist, 2009). Personality
The first person to evolve the first modern theory of personality is Sigmund Freud followed by other men and women interested in the theories of personality (Feist & Feist, 2009). Thus, there are different terms that define the word “personality”. In fact, psychologists define personality not just to the role people play, but on diversified definitions. To understand the concept of personality theory one need to consider its background. Such as personality from an individual reference point, where theorists live and come from, trained as psychiatry or psychology, and experiences is psychotherapists or empirical research (Feist & Feist, 2009). Feist and Feist (2009) stated, “Although no single definition is acceptable to all personality theorists, we can say that personality is a pattern of relatively permanent traits and unique characteristics that give both consistency and individuality to a person’s behavior” (p. 4). Therefore, traits and characteristics in a person is what define personality. Traits because contributes with consistency of behavior over time and stability of behavior across situations. Characteristics because of the unique qualities a person has such as temperament, physique, and intelligence. Consequently, personality has the mission to provide an integrative framework for understanding the whole person and to focus on human individually (McAdams & Pals, 2006). Theoretical Approaches
Accordingly, there are a number of different theories about how personality develops. Some of the theoretical approaches use to study personality consists of observation, consistency, and accuracy for the personality theory to generate research. Moreover, to understand the theoretical approach, first the definition of a theory is provided. “A scientific theory is a set of related assumptions that allows scientists to use logical deductive reasoning to formulate testable hypotheses” (Feist & Feist, 2009, p. 4). Therefore, there are different concepts that relate to the personality theory, such as philosophy, speculation, hypothesis, and taxonomy. Philosophy. Philosophers, people who pursue wisdom through thinking and reasoning without controlled studies in their pursuit of wisdom. One branch of philosophy is the nature of knowledge. The reason why it relates to personality theory is because it is a tool used by scientists in their pursuit of knowledge (Feist & Feist, 2009). Speculation. Speculation consists of the flow forth from the mind of a thinker isolated from empirical observations very similar in gathering data like science. Therefore, speculations and empirical observation are essential to theory building need by the personality theory to generate research. However, speculation does not provide controlled observation (Feist & Feist, 2009). Hypothesis. Any theory consists of generating different hypotheses, which is a prediction validated to test through the scientific method. Through deductive reasoning scientists can derive testable hypotheses from a useful theory and test the hypotheses. Thus, using inductive reasoning scientists alters the theory to reflect results being able to reshape a theory (Feist &...