Introduction to Perfume Research

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  • Topic: Perfume, Odor, Essential oil
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Manufacture of Perfume Scent from Rosa Berberifolia

Background of Research

Why is it that women love perfumes as much as men love cars? According to (Smith and Wade, 2008) “There are studies that most of women’s reason for loving perfume is because of the pheromones their bodies produce. Often these scents or perfumes trigger the increase of how much pheromone a woman’s body will produce” (p.12)

In studies carried out, nearly 80% of all women will make a perfume purchase at least each year. Not only does smelling great make a woman feel good about herself, but it will make her feel attractive also. Roses have been around and are documented longer than most of our garden plants.  The earliest record of them seems to be rose leaves found in the Colorado Rockies, dating back 35 to 32 million years to the Paleolithic era.  First mention of them, and their appearance in artistic motifs, was in Asia about 3000BC, with mention elsewhere about 2300 BC (Perry, 1998).  Roses are one of the most popular floral notes in perfumes due to its pleasant scent and staying power. The rose has many connotations; it is considered elegant, expensive and attractive. French perfumes - Joy perfume and Chanel No.5 were the early best-sellers containing rose. Rosa Berberifolia was associated with the Greeks and Romans as they moved to Rome. It’s said that the Greeks were the first to make liquid perfume, although it wasn’t anything like today’s perfume (Kenneth, 2000, p.21-22). In order to make their perfume, they used a mixture of fragrant powders and heavy oils – no alcohol. According to Lord (1992), the Greeks loved to bathe with these fragrant oils, men and women alike, and they used them on all parts of their bodies, both before and after their baths. On the other hand, this practice was rampant in the Roman baths, where there would be all kinds of jars and pots of fragrant oils, in all shapes and sizes. The Romans bathed three times a day, so they needed to keep lots on hand. 

Review of Related Literature

The composition of any perfume starts with base perfume oils, which are natural, animal or synthetic, and are then watered down with a solvent to make them light and applicable. Unfortunately, perfume oils in either pure or undiluted form, can cause damage to skin, or an allergic reaction, so the adding of solvent is necessary to make them less potent. “The most prevalent solvent used in the manufacturing of perfumes is Ethanol” (Green, 1991, p.53). This literature review will consider each factor considering the use of Rosa Berberifolia as perfume scent.

Manufacture of perfume is smooth and profitable. In fact, according to Smith and Wade (2006), research has shown that you can actually make a 100 bottles of perfume for less than $300, and then, if you want, sell them for up to $50 each. Many people have settled for this business not just because it’s easy income but also require less effort in selling. One of the essential parts in manufacturing perfume is the material used for the process. Plants are the oldest source for obtaining fragrant oil compounds from, and the parts used the most are the flowers and blossoms. But other plant parts, which can also be considered for use in perfume making, are “leave, twigs, roots, rhizomes, bulbs, seeds, fruit, wood, bark and lichens”(Agustin, 1984, p. 486). Furthermore, another source of fragrant oil is from animals and other synthetic materials. The main ingredient for producing rose scent from Rose (Rosa Berberifolia) uses “Rose oil extracts often seen as “attar of roses” or “rose otto” trough steam distillation , was probably first made in 10th century Persia.  This was the first import of roses to Europe, leading to the subsequent growing of the plants there” (Perry, 1998). Rosa Berberifolia is associated to have different scents. Perry (1998) stated that the seven main rose scents are rose (or damask), nasturtium, orris (which is similar to violets), violets, apple, clove,...
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