Introduction to Musculoskeletal Anatomy

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INTRODUCTION TO MUSCULOSKELETAL ANATOMY.

APPROACHES TO THE DESCRIPTION AND DISCUSSION OF ANATOMICAL STRUCTUES.

LEVELS OF STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION.

SYSTEMS DESCRIPTION/DISCUSSION OF MUSCULOSKELETAL STRUCTURES.

CLASSIFICATION OF MUSCULOSKELETAL STRUCTURES.

GENERAL FUNCTION OF MUSCULOSKELETAL STRUCTURES.

TOPOGRAPHICAL DESCRIPTION/DISCUSSION OF MUSCULOSKELETAL STRUCTURES.

PERSPECTIVES IN MACROSCOPIC ANATOMY.

INTRODUCTION TO MUSCULOSKELETAL ANATOMY.

APPROACHES TO THE DESCRIPTION AND DISCUSSION OF ANATOMICAL STRUCTURES.

Anatomy is the study of biological structures. Human anatomy focuses on the study of structure in Modern Homo Sapiens. Observation, describing, recording and using anatomical knowledge are major activities of the subject.

Description. Description of anatomical structures is based on observation and the use of an agreed upon standard nomenclature. One such system is the Nomina Anatomica and the more recent Terminologia Anatomica.

Macroscopic Description. Macroscopic description involves observation with the unaided eye and covers structures from about one millimetre to about one metre in size. Table 1.

There are two main ways of identifying structures both based upon description, By their individual characteristics( systems, ex situ description) and by their location and relationships (topographical, in situ description)

Systems. Involves the study or description of individual structures. This can be approached in two further ways. By tissue systems eg bones, joints, muscles etc. or by physiological systems eg cardiovascular, respiratory etc. Here a tissue approach will be used.

Topographical. Involves the study or description of regions and the relationships of the structures within the region, eg the shoulder region, cubital fossa, the hand. The complex three dimensional aspect of anatomy.

Combined. There is no reason why a combined approach cannot be used. Describe the individual characteristics of a particular structure and add its relationships or describe a region and then describe the individual characteristics of one or more of the structures within the region.

Discussion. Pure description of a structure involves giving and account of its physical appearance. Discussion may involve a full or partial description plus some aspects of a perspective or significance, often that of contemporary function.

LEVELS OF STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION.

Based upon a general systems theory approach to biological systems.

Overall Level. The level of the major body part. Eg upper limb, manipulation, sensing the external environment, communication. Regional or Group Level. The contribution of a group of structures such as muscles or a region to the function of manipulation. Eg the shoulder region in providing mobility, the hand grasp. Individual Structure Level. Eg The contribution of individual structures to the role of the region or system overall eg articular surfaces to mobility, ligaments or parts of ligaments to joint stability, a particular muscle to grasp. Further levels, substructure, histological, molecular.

SYSTEMS DESCRIPTION/DISCUSSION OF MUSCULOSKELETAL STRUCTURES.

Bones. Name, classification, particular location, general features, particular features ( relationships, significances), surface features. Particular functions; articulations, attachments (muscles, ligaments, capsule), force transfer, protection. Other perspective(s). Joints. Name, classification, bones forming, additional features, ligaments (movements limited), positions (anatomical, neutral, close packed), movements, muscles producing movements, stabilizing factors, key relationships, sensory innervation. Other perspective(s). Muscles. Name, classification, size, shape, attachments, action/function (movements, stabilization, protection), innervation, key relationships, surface...
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