Introduction to Management & Organisations

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*BUS1001 Introduction to Management & Organisations E*ssay for Semester 1, 2008/9 According to Pettinger (2002), management can variously be defined as a ‘science, profession and art’ and ‘its status lies somewhere between the three ‘with strong elements of each’. Is management a profession were you could qualify in like a doctor, is it science were there’s only “one best way to manage” (Bennet, Roger (1994)) or is it a skill/ personality in which a manager is has it in their genes from birth? The answer to this question undouptfully helps identify what is meant by management. Unfortunate the answer to this question has not been answered, although many theorists have tried to identify and explain what management is. Pettinger is a modern writer on management, who came up with three kinds of topics to describe management in one sentence; these are mix of three science, profession and art. He uses his own ideas and ones those from past to make his own conclusion on management as all three. However looking at theorists such as Fayol and Taylor from scientific point of view has complete different views of theorist such as Mintzberg and contingency theory which are more of an art side, this show that these three words that help describe management clash against each other making it harder to consider management as a mix of science, profession and art. Another example of this is, how can management be taught and learned if it’s an art in which you ever have the capability to manage or not while science theorist try to find methods in ways to teach management and management as profession is all about being able to develop and learn skills and knowledge on how to manage. So how can management fit between science, art and profession? Many of different theorists either describe management as art, science or profession, so by researching and analysing theorist’s work and different schools on management to see which of their works fit into these categories. By doing this we will be able to justify Pettingers thoughts of management and prove that management’s status does position in-between Science, profession and art. Management as science has been described by Watson as “successful managers are those who have learned the appropriate body of knowledge and have developed an ability to apply acquired skills and techniques” (Watson, T.J. (1986)). The classical school provided this techniques and skills into job of management as method of one best way, the most efficient method for the organisation. Processes that have been tested and tried may prove that the best way exists. Classical school ethicise this by theorists such as Taylors scientific principles and Fayols 14 principles. Fayol had recognised that there is no limit to the principles of management but in his writing he came up with 14. Moorcroft who is more modern theorist agrees with Fayols five elements of management which are ‘to forecast and plan, to organise, to command, to co-ordinate and to control’ and believes they are still recognised as relevant and appropriate, as how could a manager run a business without these five elements. Also according to Fayol, “all business organisations are concerned with more or less the same types of activity” (Bennet, Roger (1994)) showing that Fayol is in fact supporting management as a science. The classical school “uses facts and reason to arrive at conclusions, rather than imagination, feelings and intuition”(find were quote from, Bowditch, J. And Buono, A.(1990) or Bennet, Roger (1994)), shows that classical school is in reality showing science as facts, are made from real life events, data, scientific research and testing rather than art side of management. The classical writers were concerned with improving organisations efficiency by setting important principles, “they saw these principles as a set of ‘rules’ offering general solutions to common problems of organisation and management” (Mullins, Laurie J (2007))....
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