Introduction to Indian Customs Duty

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Custom Duty is imposed under the Indian Customs Act formulated in 1962 by the Constitution of India under the Article 265, which states that “no tax shall be levied or collected except by authority of law. So, theIndian Custom Act was introduced that allow the Central Government to collect the taxes under the name of Custom Duty. Custom Duties are usually levied with ad valorem rates and their base is determined by the domestic value 'the imported goods calculated at the official exchange rate. Similarly, export duties are imposed on export values expressed in domestic currency. Export duties are levied occasionally to clear up excess profitability in international price of goods in respect of which domestic prices may be low at given time. But the concept of import duty is wide and almost universal, except for a few goods like food grains, fertilizer, life saving drugs and equipment etc. The Indian Customs Duties are major source of revenue for the Union Government and constitute around 30% of its  tax revenues. Together with Central Excise duties, the contribution amount to nearly three-fourth of total tax revenue of the Union Government. Custom duty not only raises money for the Central Government but also helps the government to prevent the illegal imports and illegal exports of goods from India. The Central government has emergency powers toincrease import or export duties whenever necessary after a notification in the session of Parliament. History of Indian Customs

The Custom Duty in its present form dates back to 1786, when Bruisers formed the first Revenue Board in Calcutta. In 1808, a new Trade Board was introduced for export and import of goods from India. Once again, in 1859 Customs Duties Act was introduced in which provincial import duties were replaced by uniform Tariff Act and was applicable to all Indian territories within the country. In the subsequent year several changes in the Custom Policy took places and are as follow: * Sea Customs Act...
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