Introduction to Globalisation Definitions: The word Globalisation is defined by the Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary as – (a) the increase of trade around the world, especially by large companies producing and trading goods in many different countries (b) when available goods and services, or social and cultural influences, gradually become similar in all parts of the world The term has been defined by The NCERT Social Science Text Book followed by the Central Board of Secondary Education in Class X as “Globalisation means integrating our economy with the world economy”. Further it states that “In this process, we become economically interdependent at the global or international level.” However, at a higher level the economists in leading international forums have defined Globalisation as followsWorld Health Organization : Globalization, or the increased interconnectedness and interdependence of people and countries, is generally understood to include two interrelated elements: the opening of borders to increasingly fast flows of goods, services, finance, people and ideas across international borders; and the changes in institutional and policy regimes at the international and national levels that facilitate or promote such flows. Pascal Lamy, Director-General, World Trade Organization (WTO) : a historical stage of accelerated expansion of market capitalism, like the one experienced in the 19th century with the industrial revolution. It is a fundamental transformation in societies because of the recent technological revolution which has led to a recombining of the economic and social forces on a new territorial dimension. International Forum on Globalization : The present worldwide drive toward a globalized economic system dominated by supranational corporate trade and banking institutions that are not accountable to democratic processes or national governments.1 Angshuman Hazarika
History of Globalisation: Ancient history According to most scholars and researchers, it is the modern age which led to the origin of globalisation. However, the roots of globalisation had been laid in the past.There are some scholars who point out that the origins of the history of globalization can be traced back to the ancient civilizations. Scholars who advocate this theory say that the example of the earliest forms of globalization is the trade links between the Sumerian civilization and the Indus Valley Civilization in third millennium B.C. In fact, after this age, there are numerous instances where trade links were established between various countries like India, Egypt, Greece, and Roman Empire and so on. There were regular business links between the Parthian Empire, Roman Empire and Han Dynasty. The popularity of the trade relations led to the development of various trade routes like Silk Road and so on. The evidences of trade between Indus Valley Civilisation and the Greece which have been discovered during the excavations is an evidence of links between the ancient civilisations. In this period another important event was the rise of different religions which spread around the world. Buddhism arose during this period and spread throughout Asia. It made its first major appearance in China under the Han Dynasty, and consolidated cultural links across the Eurasian Steppes into India and laid the foundation of the silk route.2 Medieval History The Islamic period in the medieval era is an important epoch in the history of globalization. This was when the Jewish and the Muslim traders started going to various parts of the world to sell various items. This led to a blend of ideas, traditions and customs. In China, the first postal service was introduced and paper was invented. This led to better knowledge sharing. As more and more people started travelling to various countries across the world, it led to more communication between people and...
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