Introduction to Herbicides

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Introduction to Herbicides-Resistant Crop
Herbicides are used to control weed is one of the most significant constraints to crop production. The major constraints of herbicides is that herbicides lacks selectivity, since all herbicides function by disrupting essential metabolic or physiological processes occurring in most plants. Traditional strategies in selectivity of herbicides was achieved predominantly by exploiting metabolic differences between species such as plant hormone 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) (Twyman, 2003). However, the strategy becomes more difficult to apply when crops and the weeds infesting them are closely related where by the metabolic processes in related species are similar. One method in which the problem of selectivity can be overcome is to introduce genes that confer resistance to broad-spectrum herbicides into crop plants. In this manner, selectivity is attained not by altering the properties of the herbicide to discriminate between crops and weeds, but by altering the properties of the crops to make them more selectable by the herbicides (Cobb & Reade, 2011). Various herbicide resistance genes have been isolated from a number of bacteria and from plants and have been introduced into crops to produce transgenic lines with resistance to a number of broad-spectrum herbicides, including glyphosate, glufosinate, and bromoxynil through DNA recombinant technology. Strategies Used by Researcher to Produce Herbicides Resistant Plant The introduction of herbicide resistance genes into crop plants allows the use of broad-spectrum herbicides with little natural selectivity. This provides the finest method for selecting between closely related species. One way in which resistance can be introduced is by genetic engineering and recombinant DNA technology. Herbicides Resistant Plant with Target Site Resistance

Most of the action of herbicides requires the chemical compound to interact with a target protein in the plant through...
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