Introduction to Education in the Philippines

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I- INTRODUCTION

The basic education in the Philippines consists of pre-primary education (one year), primary education (six years), and secondary education (four years). Although public pre-primary, primary, and secondary education are provided free, only primary education is stipulated as compulsory according to the 1987 Philippine Constitution. Pre-primary education caters to children aged five. A child aged six may enter elementary schools with, or without pre-primary education. Following on from primary education is four-years of secondary education (high school education), which can theoretically be further divided into three years of lower secondary and one year of upper secondary education. Ideally, a child enters secondary education at the age of 12. After completing their secondary education, students may progress to a technical education and skills development (non-degree) to earn a certificate or a diploma within one to three years, depending on the skill. Students also have the option to enroll in higher education programmes to earn a baccalaureate degree (four years).

To go with the fast growing changes in the trends of education, Philippines would adopt a new model of education commonly referred as the K to 12 program. The new program of education would primarily increase the Global Competitiveness of every graduate; Economic Advantage of Long Education Cycle based on Studies; the K to 12 would also address the poor performance of students in national and international examinations which specifically shows low academic performances of the students in the core subjects: English, Filipino, Mathematics, Sciences and Social Studies.

In the long run, the effectiveness of the new program could not be easily seen for the product of the new model of education can be seen by the end of S.Y. 2018. However, the Enhanced K+12 Basic Education Program will be instrumental in achieving the nation’s vision of a high school graduate. The benefits of the K+12 proposal far outweigh the additional costs that will be incurred by both government and families.

The program will decongest academic workload, giving students more time to master competencies and skills as well as time for other learning opportunities beyond the classroom, thus allowing for a more holistic development. Graduates will possess competencies and skills relevant to the job market. The K+12 proposal will be designed to adjust and meet the fast-changing demands of society to prepare graduates with skills essential for the world of work. Graduates will be prepared for higher education. Due to an enhanced curriculum that will provide relevant content and attuned with the changing needs of the times, basic education will ensure sufficient mastery of core subjects to its graduates such that graduates may opt to pursue higher education if they choose to. Graduates will be able to earn higher wages and/or better prepared to start their own business. There is a strong correlation between educational attainment and wage structure and studies specific to the Philippine setting show that an additional year of schooling increases earnings by 7.5%. This should also allow greater access to higher education for self-supporting students. Graduates could now be recognized abroad. Filipino graduates, e.g. engineers, architects, doctors, etc., could now be recognized as professionals in other countries. Those who intend to study abroad will meet the entrance requirements of foreign schools.

For the Society and the Economy. The economy will experience accelerated growth in the long run. The objective of the K+12 program is to improve quality of basic education. Several studies have shown that the improvements in the quality of education will increase GDP growth by as much as 2%. Studies in the UK, India and US show that additional years of schooling also have positive overall impact on society.

The Philippine education system will be at par with international...
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