Introduction to Corrections

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CJ130: Introduction to Corrections
December 6, 2011

Community Based Corrections
“A criminal act is identified as that which shocks the social conscience; criminality functions as a way to clarify the moral boundaries of the social group. Punishment is the reciprocal effect of society's moral outrage, generating and maintaining a solidarity that society cannot readily do without” (Science Encyclopedia). Hegel's theory of punishment is a critical role for the act of punishing a criminal; punishment is an essential force of society and shows the power of the judicial system. Social thinkers from the nineteenth century emphasized that crime and punishment play important roles in society. Around that same time, a different set of philosophical and historical speculations came about that better explained the importance of punishment in society. More time and focus was put into explaining the importance of punishment rather than justifying it in given practices. The attention shift came from many different directions that were not necessarily from a common ground. “Three key exemplars are the sociological analysis of Émile Durkheim (1858–1917), the Marxian tradition, and the genealogical method of Nietzsche and Michel Foucault (1926–1984)” (Science Encyclopedia). Even though there were differences in the opinions of each, there were also some important likenesses. All three of the theorists did not think that punishment was not important, but they looked at it as a change to already set social order. Second, the theorists were very leery about the justifications given for punishment in the social aspect. Third, the three of theorists all showed an extreme passion for the ramifications on society from the different ideas of crime and punishment.

Get Tough on Crime
“In the past 15 years, there has been an unprecedented growth of state and federal prison populations (Gilliard and Beck 1994; Farrington and Langan 1992). Between 1980 and 1993, the number...
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