Introduction to Control Systems

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Outline of the Course

• Fundamentals of Control Systems • Introduction to Microprocessor-Based Control • Operational Amplifiers & Signal Conditioning • Switches, Relays & Power-Control Semiconductors • Mechanical Systems • Sensors • Electrical Machines • Electric, Hydraulic & Pneumatic • Feedback Control Principles • Relay Logic, PLCs & Motion Controllers • Basics of Modern Control Theories

Dr. Kadir ERKAN

Introduction to Control Systems

3

First Lecture : Fundamentals of Control Systems

Headlines • Introduction and Motivation for Control Systems • Basic Definitions and Background • Open Loop Control Systems • Closed Loop Control systems • Concept of Transfer Function • Fundamentals of Analog and Digital Control Systems • Classification of Control Systems ????

Dr. Kadir ERKAN

Introduction to Control Systems

4

Objectives of First Lecture
After studying this lecture, you should be able to: • Distinguish between open-loop and closed-loop control systems. • Understand control system block diagrams. • Explain transfer functions. • Differentiate between analog and digital control systems. • Know how process control systems work.??? • Know how servomechanisms work.???

Dr. Kadir ERKAN

Introduction to Control Systems

5

Introduction and Motivation for Control Systems 1
A control system is a collection of components working together under the direction of some machine intelligence. In most cases, electronic circuits provide the intelligence,and electromechanical components such as sensors and motors provide the interface to the physical world. A good example is the modern automobile. Various sensors supply the on-board computer with information about the engine’s condition. The computer then calculates the precise amount of fuel to be injected into the engine and adjusts the ignition timing. The mechanical parts of the system include the engine, transmission, wheels, and so on. To design, diagnose, or repair these sophisticated systems, you must understand the electronics, the mechanics, and control system principles. Controller (driver-electronics)

Input: Gas pedal, steering wheel

Output: Speed, direction

Dr. Kadir ERKAN

Introduction to Control Systems

6

Introduction and Motivation for Control Systems 2
Control systems are the “automatic” in such things as automatic pilot and automatic automatic washer. Because the machine itself is making the routine decisions, the human operator is freed to do other things. In many cases, machine intelligence is better than direct human control because it can react faster or slower (keep track of long-term slow changes), respond more precisely, and maintain an accurate log of the system’s performance Natural control systems have existed since the beginning of life. Consider how the human body regulates temperature. If the body needs to heat itself, food calories are converted to produce heat; on the other hand, evaporation causes cooling. The subject of control systems is really many subjects: electronics (both analog and digital), power-control devices, sensors, motors, mechanics, and control system theory, which ties together all these concepts. Control engineering area is very interesting because it deals with applications of much of the theory which have been learned during course of license education… Dr. Kadir ERKAN Introduction to Control Systems 7

Fundamental Elements of a Control Systems
Every control system has (at least) •a controller •an actuator (also called a final control element) •a plant (process, system to be controlled)

Set point : The input signal to the control system, specifying the desired system output. Controller : The machine intelligence of the control system. Actuator : The first component in the control system which generates physical movement, typically a motor. The actuator gets its instructions directly from the controller. Another name for the actuator is the final control element Process :...
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