Introduction to Computers

Topics: Computer, Microprocessor, Mainframe computer Pages: 8 (1806 words) Published: June 28, 2013
Computer is a processing machine which processes raw data to produce meaningful data. It has tremendous change with comparison to calculator. Characteristics of Computers: -
Computers have got their importance due to the following characteristics: - 1. Accuracy: - Computer performs every operation with equal and high accuracy. Errors can occur in a computer due to only human mistakes, weaknesses and imprecise thinking. 2. Repeatitiveness: - Once the set of instructions are permanently fed to computer then it repeats the execution again and again as required. 3. Compactness: - Now-a-days the computers are very compact in size so they are portable and easy to handle. 4. Diligence: - Means the equal devotion at all time to its all work unlike human beings, a computer is free from monotony, tiredness, lack of concentration etc. 5. Versatility: - computer is a versatile machine so it can perform any work ranging from simple to the complex task. 6. Automation: - Automaticity means once a task is started computer can proceed on its own till its completion without any human intervention. 7. Speed: - Speed is the most important characteristics because computer can perform any task much faster than human being. 8. Storage: - storage capacity of computer is unlimited because of its main and secondary (auxiliary) memory so it is capable of storing huge amounts of data. Generation of Computers: -

First Generation (1946 - 1954): -
The digital computers using electronic valves (vacuum tubes) are known as first – generation computers. The first generation computers usually used vacuum tubes as CPU components. A. | Computer Characteristics & Capabilities: -|

1. | Size | | Size was equivalent to a room. |
2. | Density | | One component per circuit. |
3. | Speed| | Hundred Instructions per second. |
4. | Reliability | | Failure in circuits in hours. | 5. | Memory | | Thousands capacity in characters. |
6. | Cost | | Cost was very high. |
7. | Language | | Machine and Assembly language.|
B. | Trends and Developments in Computer Hardware: - | 8. | Main Component| | Vacuum tubes were the main components. | 9. | Main Memory | | Magnetic drum.|
10. | Secondary Storage | | Magnetic drum and magnetic tape. | 11. | Input Media| | Punched cards and paper tape.|
12. | Output Media | | Punched cards and printed reports | 13. | Examples | | IBM 700 Series, IBM 701 Series, IBM 704 Series, IBM 709 Series EDVAC, UNIVAC, Whirlwind IMark – I, Mark – III |

Vacuum Tube
Second Generation (1955 - 1964): -
The second generation computers used transistors for CPU components, ferrite cores for main memory and magnetic disks, drums and tapes for secondary memory. A. | Computer Characteristics & Capabilities: -|

1. | Size | | Smaller than first generation computers. | 2. | Density | | Hundreds components per circuit. |
3. | Speed| | Thousand instructions per second. |
4. | Reliability | | Failure of circuits in days |
5. | Memory | | Tens of thousands capacity in characters.| 6. | Cost | | Cost slightly lower that first generation. | 7. | Language | | Assembly and High level languages (like FORTRAN, COBOL, BASIC & ALGOL)| B. | Trends and Developments in Computer Hardware: - | 8. | Main Component| | Transistor was the main component. | 9. | Main Memory | | Magnetic core.|

10. | Secondary Storage | | Magnetic tape and Magnetic disk. | 11. | Input Media| | Punched Cards. |
12. | Output Media | | Punch cards & printed reports. | 13. | Examples | | IBM 1620 Series, IBM 7090 SeriesIBM 7094 I, IBM 7094 IIControl Data Corporation’s (CDC 1604)Digital Data corporation’s PDP1, PDP3, PDP5, PDP8PDP (Programmed Data Processor)ATLAS, LEO |

Transistor
Third Generation (1965...
Continue Reading

Please join StudyMode to read the full document

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • Computers Essay
  • Computer Introduction Essay
  • INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER PROGRAMMING Essay
  • Introduction of Computers Essay
  • Essay on Introduction to Computer
  • Introduction to Computers Essay
  • introduction to computer Essay
  • Introduction to Computers Essay

Become a StudyMode Member

Sign Up - It's Free