Introduction to Blood Groups

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  • Topic: Blood type, Blood, ABO blood group system
  • Pages : 10 (3910 words )
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  • Published : March 3, 2012
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Question 11 Blood group O
Blood group O (or blood group zero in some countries) individuals do not have either A or B antigens on the surface of their RBCs, but their blood serum contains IgM anti-A and anti-B antibodies against the A and B blood group antigens. Therefore, a group O individual can receive blood only from a group O individual, but can donate blood to individuals of any ABO blood group (i.e., A, B, O or AB). If anyone needs a blood transfusion in an emergency, and if the time taken to process the recipient's blood would cause a detrimental delay, O Negative blood can be issued. A person with Type O can donate to any other blood type, but can only receive blood from another Type O person. A person with having blood group O(with absence of Rh-factor) only can donate his blood to any other indivisual.(Rh or Antigen-D) is a factor which decides the positivity or negativity of the the blood group O-negative can be considered as universal donor,as it does not effect any of other bloood groups.

Plasma compatibility

Plasma compatibility chart
In addition to donating to the same blood group; plasma from type AB can be given to A, B and O; plasma from types A, B and AB can be given to O. Recipients can receive plasma of the same blood group, but otherwise the donor-recipient compatibility for blood plasma is the converse of that of RBCs: plasma extracted from type AB blood can be transfused to individuals of any blood group; individuals of blood group O can receive plasma from any blood group; and type O plasma can be used only by type O recipients.

Read more: O+ can give to any other positive (A+, B+, AB+, and of course, O+) You can receive blood from either O (O+ or O-)

Read more: It contains neither A antigen nor B antigen. their blood can be given to individuals of any other blood group.The red cells do not carry either A or B antigen and hence they do not react with their corresponding antibodies.

Read more: Anti-A and Anti-B, the common IgM antibodies to the RBC surface antigens of the ABO blood group system are sometimes described as being "naturally occurring", however, this is a misnomer, because these antibodies are formed in infancy by sensitisation in the same way as other antibodies. The theory that explains how these antibodies are developed states that antigens similar to the A and B antigens occur in nature, including in food, plants and bacteria. After birth an infant gut becomes colonized with normal flora which express these A-like and B-like antigens, causing the immune system to make antibodies to those antigens that the red cells do not possess. So, people who are blood type A will have Anti-B, blood type B will have Anti-A, blood type O will have both Anti-A and Anti-B, and blood type AB will have neither. Because of these so called "naturally occurring" and expected antibodies, it is important to correctly determine a patient's blood type prior to transfusion of any blood component. These naturally occurring antibodies are of the IgM class, which have the capability of agglutinating (clumping) and damaging red cells within the blood vessels, possibly leading to death. It is not necessary to determine any other blood groups because almost all other red cell antibodies can only develop through active immunization, which can only occur through either previous blood transfusion or pregnancy. A test called the Antibody Screen is always performed on patients who may require red blood cell transfusion, and this test will detect most clinically significant red cell antibodies. The RhD antigen is also important in determining a person's blood type. The terms "positive" or "negative" refer to either the presence or absence of the RhD antigen...
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