Introduction to Biology

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Cheat Sheet for Test 3

What is stress?
Any force that pushes the body out of optimum homeostatic conditions

Stressors include
Digesting food,
waking after a long sleep
Walking outdoors after being indoors
Impending happy event such as a wedding or party,
falling in love
Arguments ,
over work,

The General Adaptation Syndrome is
A predictable set of behavioral defenses/activities that a body undertakes to cope with intense prolonged stress

The parts of our inborn ability to defend against the daily stressors known as innate immunity are Physical barriers : skin and mucous membranes
Chemical deterrents : complement system and interferon General pathogen-fighting measures: phagocytes, inflammation, fever

The skin is the largest organ of the body and is known as the Integumentary System The 2nd largest organ is the liver

The three layers of skin are
Epidermis, dermis, hypodermis

The Complement System is a series of chemical reactions that combat bacterial infections

Interferon is a hormone that warns nearby cells to prepare and ward off viruses

Phagocytes are cells that eat or engulf and remove things that do not belong in the system

The Hypothalamus, Pineal, Pituitary, Thyroid, Parathyroid , Thymus, Adrenals, Ovaries, Testes are all organs of the endocrine system.

Chemical messengers that trigger, regulate, and shut down homeostatic reactions are hormones

Cells of tissues and organs that specific hormones act upon are Target cells
Hormones that are water soluble and cannot diffuse across cell membranes - and that affect target cells in seconds because they work with proteins that are already present in the target cell are Non-steroid hormones

Hormones that are lipid soluble and readily pass through cell and nuclear membranes of their target cells to make new proteins which alter the normal activity of the cell are Steroid hormones

Endocrine glands secrete
Hormones directly into the blood stream

The master gland of the endocrine system that secretes 9 hormones that direct activities of all other endocrine glands is the pituitary

What endocrine gland is both endocrine and exocrine because it secretes digestive enzymes and hormones for maintaining blood glucose levels by regulating insulin production and inhibition? Pancreas

When our nonspecific immune system does not provide adequate protection from pathogens, the immune response takes over which is learned responses to specific pathogens that work through the lymphatic system

The Tonsils, Spleen, Thymus, Lymph nodes, and Glands of the digestive system are all part of the endocrine system

The main function of the reproductive system is to produce haploid gametes and unite them to form a new individual

In meiosis of the female, one egg and three polar bodies are produced from one parent cell

In male meiosis four spermatocytes are produced from 2 divisions of one parent cell

The vulva is female external genital consisting of clitoris and two sets of labia

All are true concerning orgasm
• There are 4 phases in both males and females • In the male, orgasm accompanies ejaculation
• The female can experience two or more in a row and requires no refractory period between orgasms • Male orgasm does not automatically or necessarily trigger female orgasm

The ductus deferens (vas deferens) is a 50 cm tube that starts at the epididymis and runs into the urethra where sperm can be stored several months

In the male, during ejaculation, urine and sperm are prevented from mixing by the closing of the sphincter at the base of the urinary bladder...
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