I. INTRODUCTION TO
AGRARIAN REFORM OF THE PHIL. AND BRIEF HISTORY OF
II. IMPLEMENTING LAWS
III. DEFINITION OF LAND REFORM
& AGRARIAN REFORM
IV. COVERAGE OF THE LAND
V. RETENTION LIMITS & EXCEPTION ON THE
RULES ON RETENTION LIMITS
I. INTRODUCTION TO
AGRARIAN REFORM OF THE PHIL. AND BRIEF HISTORY OF AGRARIAN REFORM
Land reform pertains to integrated set of measures designed to eliminate obstacles to economic and social development arising from defects in the agrarian structure. One of the existing agrarian reform laws in the country is Republic Act No. 6675, otherwise known as the “The Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Law”.
Agrarian reform had been introduced in the country as early as the Spanish period. Royal Decrees were issued for loyalty and faithful service to the Spanish Crown. However, only some few affluent got titles to their land and were allowed to exact tributes from peasants. “Land dispute and agrarian unrest partly ignited the explosion which resulted in the Revolution against Spain”.
During the American Period, Church-owned lands were subdivided as a measure of land reform. These lands were sold to farmers to pacify the revolting peasant. This set-up enabled a number of Filipino farmers to amass big tract of lands which later on became the haciendas.
In 1933, the Philippines Rice Share Tenancy Act was passé which regulated the relationship between tenants in rice-producing areas and the landlord.
When the 1935 Constitution was enacted, several provision on social justice including expropriation of landholding and protection to labor were introduce. Under the social justice program of President Manuel L. Quezon, effort were made to carry out land settlement projects.due to the increasing unrest in the rice producing areas, Commonwealth Act No. 178 was passed amending the former Rice Share Tenancy Act (Act 4054). Commonwealth Act 461 was enacted, which protected from dismissal share tenants except on the grounds specifically mentioned therein and only upon approval of the Tenancy Division of the Department of Justice.
The law was later on repealed and replace by Commonwealth Act 608 providing for compulsory arbitration of landlord tenant dispute by representative of the Department of Justice with the right of appeal to the court of Industrial relations should be decision of the arbitrator be unsatisfactory to any of the parties.
In 1946, the Philippine Republic was established and series of laws to solve agrarian problem was enacted. Among the legislative acts passed were Republic Act No. 34, which regulated Rice Share Tenancy contract, and the Agricultural Tenancy Act. This law extensively defined the rights and duties of landlords and tenants on all classes of land, rents on landholding and ordered a more equitable division of the produce of lands under share tenancies.
Under Pres. Ramon Magsaysay, land reform was given added impetus. He adopted a rigorous program of land for the landless and signed RA 1400 known as the Land Reform Act of 1955 which established the Land Tenure Administration as the machinery for acquisition and redistribution of private agricultural lands. However, his sudden death caused him to distribute less than one percent of the land under his program.
During the time of Pres. Diosdado Macapagal, the share tenancy was abolished and leasehold tenancy was adopted preparatory to owner-cultivatorship.
In July 1963 under the administration of Pres. Diosdado Macapagal, the Land Reform Code was passed by the Congress. It was approved and took into effect on Aug. 8, 1963.
Republic Act 6389 which was supported by Pres. F. Marcos introduce drastic and revolutionary changes in the Land Reform Code, which was later on called the Code of...