Chapter 1 Introduction to Management and Organizations
|ANNOTATED OUTLINE | |
INTRODUCTION TO CHAPTER ONE
Chapter One introduces the concepts of management, managers, and organizations through the exploration of five major questions: A.
Who are managers?
What is management?
What do managers do?
What is an organization, and how is the concept of an organization changing? E.
Why study management?
WHO ARE MANAGERS?
The changing nature of organizations and work often requires employees in formerly nonmanagerial jobs to perform managerial activities. Students who are preparing for careers on any organizational level can benefit from acquiring management skills. Today’s employees need to be cross-trained and multiskilled. B.
How do we define a manager? A manager is someone who coordinates and oversees the work of other people so that organizational goals can be accomplished. However, keep in mind that managers may have additional work duties not related to coordinating the work of others. C.
Managers can be classified by their level in the organization, particularly in traditionally structured organizations—those shaped like a pyramid (see Exhibit 1-1 and PowerPoint slide 1-7). 1.
First-line managers (often called supervisors) are located on the lowest level of management. 2.
Middle managers include all levels of management between the first-line level and the top level of the organization. 3.
Top managers include managers at or near the top of the organization who are responsible for making organization-wide decisions and establishing plans and goals that affect the entire organization. 3.
WHAT IS MANAGEMENT?
Management involves coordinating and overseeing the work activities of others so that their activities are completed efficiently and effectively. 1.
Coordinating and overseeing the work of others is what distinguishes a managerial position from a nonmanagerial one. 2. Efficiency is getting the most output from the least amount of inputs in order to minimize resource costs. Efficiency is often referred to as “doing things right” (see Exhibit 1-2 and PowerPoint slide 1-9). 3. Effectiveness is completing activities so that organizational goals are attained and is often described as “doing the right things” (see Exhibit 1-2 and PowerPoint slide 1-9). 4.
WHAT DO MANAGERS DO?
No two managers’ jobs are exactly alike. But management writers and researchers have developed some specific categorization schemes to describe what managers do. Chapter One examines these three categorization schemes: functions, roles, skills. A.
Management Functions. Henri Fayol, a French industrialist in the early 1900s, proposed that managers perform five management functions: POCCC (plan, organize, command, coordinate, control). 1.
Over time, Fayol’s five management functions have been reorganized into four functions, which provide a foundation for the organization of many current management textbooks (see Exhibit 1-3 and PowerPoint slide 1-11). a.
Planning involves defining goals, establishing strategies for achieving those goals, and developing plans to integrate and coordinate activities. b.
Organizing involves arranging and structuring work to accomplish the organization’s goals. c.
Leading involves working with and through people to accomplish organizational goals. d.
Controlling involves monitoring, comparing, and correcting work performance. 2.
In practice, managing is not always performed in a sequence as outlined above. Since these four management functions are integrated into the activities of managers throughout the workday, they should be viewed as an ongoing process....
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