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Introduction

Objectives
Objectives
Upon completion of this chapter, you should be able to:
Define security
Describe
Describe an information system and its components
Define database management system functionalities
Outline the concept of information security
Identify the major components of information security
architecture
Define database security
Describe security methods

Security
Security Definition
Security is defined as the level and degree of being free from danger and threats.
Security applies in many areas:
- National security

(the army protect us against enemies)

- Investment security (shares give us right to receive

dividends)
- Institution’s security (guard protect the properties and people)
- Financial security (insurance protect us against loss of
wages due to death or illness)

Security
Security Definition
Security definitions from IT perspective:
“the ideal state where all information can be communicated across the internet secure from unauthorized persons being
able to read it and/or manipulate it”
[Essinger
[Essinger,2001,p.43]

Security
Security Definition
Security definitions from IT perspective:
“deals with the techniques employed to maintain security
within a computer system”
[Gollman, 1999, p.3]
“is also the process of preventing and detecting
unauthorized use of one’s computer”
[Home Network Security, 2003]

Information
Information System
Success of a business usually attributed to the wise decisions of the CEO
CEO.
Wise decision can only be made when the information is accurate and timely.
Accurate
Accurate and timely information depends on the integrity of the source data and the reliable processing of that data.
Data is processed by a collection of components working together to generate accurate information. (known as an information system)

Information
Information System
Category

Characteristics

Example

TPS

- Operational task
- Structured problems
- Business transactions
transactions

- Order tracking
- Payroll
- Student Registration
Registration

DSS

-

Tactical mgmt task
- Nonstructured problems
- Business models
- “What if” analysis

-

ES

-

Risk management
- Fraud detection
- Sales forecasting
- Case resolution

expert
Human expert simulation - Loan expert
expert simulation
- Market analysis
- A branch of AI
- Statistical trading
- Knowledge base
-

Inference engine & rules

Table 1-1 Characteristics of information system categories
1-

Information
Information System
Information

Long-term goals
goals

Strategic

ES
Uppe
Upper-level
management

DSS
DSS
Middle-level
management

MIS

TPS
Lower-level management
owerData

ShortShort-term goals

Operational

Figure 1-1 Typical use of system applications at various management level

Information
Information System
Information system consist of the following components :
- Data – collected facts, stored in database
- Procedures – guidelines, business r ules, policies
- Hardware – devices e.g. computers, disks, scanners…
- Software – application,o/s,dbms,utilities,developer kit… - Network – communication infrastructure
- People – users,managers,business analyst, programmers, system

analysts, DBA, SysAdmin…….

Information
Information System

Figure 1-2 Information system components

Information
Information System
Database is a core component in most IS architecture
In Mid 1990s, client/server architecture was introduced which offers fl
flexibility and scalability.
Client/server can be implemented as one-tier, two-tier,…n-tier. Client/server architecture consists of three layers:
- User interface layer
- Network layer
- Database layer

Information
Information System

Figure 1-3 Examples of different client/server tier design

Information
Information System
Al
Almost all information system use some sort of
database server
Database
Database is managed by...
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