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China is the world’s third largest country, after Russia and Canada. The surface area of China consists of 9.6 million square kilometers, with a coastline of 18,000 kilometers. Two thirds of the vast land of china is made up of rugged plateaus, foothills, and a vast array of mountains, including some of the world’s largest. One of the most prized physical characteristics in China’s topography is the formation of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, which is still one of the most important geological events over the last several million years. China’s terrain gradually descends from west to east like a staircase, the forth and highest step is the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau averaging more than 4,000 meters above sea level, it is also referred to as the roof of the world. On the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau stands the world’s highest peak and the main attribute of the Himalayas, Mount Oomolangma, also known as Mount Everest. China is also home to some of the world’s most compelling rivers such as the Yangtze, and Yellow River. The Yangtze River is the longest in China and the third longest in the world. The Yellow River follows suit making it the second longest in China, this river also carries sufficient emotional connection with the Chinese culture and is named the mother river of the Chinese people.
China ranks comfortably the largest country in the world when measured by population. According to the most recent nationwide census taken in 2010, China has an impressive and growing population of 1,339,724,852. The current growth rate in China is 56% (World Population Review, 2012). Government restrictions on fertility rate have been set in place to control the number of children each family can acquire. The current fertility rate is 1.5 however there has been talk about increasing the fertility rate to 1.8. Age distribution is as follows, 16.60% of population ranges from ages 0-14, 70.14% range from age 15-59, 13.26% are over age 60, and 8.87% are age 65 and over (Wang, 2011). Life expectancy for males is 72 years of age while a female is 76 years of age. By year 2035, it is expected that one in four people in China will be at least 60 years of age (Country Health Information Profiles, n.d., p. 1). This has raised health concerns because an aging population will enhance disease patterns dominated by more chronic diseases and disabilities. The state of health in China is also affected greatly in part by environmental factors; because of overpopulation China has experienced high pollution volumes affecting air and water contamination. An estimated 400,000 lives are lost annually due to this problem (Country Health Information Profiles, n.d., p. 3). Education is a primary focus in China, since 1964 China's literacy rate has climbed from 66% to 96% while the number of high school and college graduates has skyrocketed (Zheng, 2012). Economic growth in China has continued to grow supporting a healthy job market and keeping a low unemployment rate of just 4.1%. The standard of living in China has also grown substantially, since the 1970’s personal wealth and household income has multiplied. A recent survey taken in 2011 reported that 72% of the population was satisfied with the standards of living in China, and thought that living standards were continually getting better (Xinhua, 2012).
The People’s Republic of China is run by a communist system of government that is broken up into five key government institutions. Those institutions consist of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), the People’s Liberation Army (PLA),...