Review questions are designed to help you study for exams. They are not intended to cover every question that may be on the exam. Questions on the exams may be over any of the material covered in class lectures and in your reading assignments. Review questions are arranged by topic, not by exam. Refer to the Lecture Schedule and your class notes for topics that will be covered on a specific exam.
Introduction to Microbiology
1. What is microbiology? What types of organisms are studied by microbiologists?
the study of very small living things
a set of techniques for studying very small organisms
What types of microorganisms are studied by microbiologists?
1. What are the three domains of living things? Bacteria, Archaea, and Eikarya What is the basis for placing organisms in one of the three domains? Archaea and the bacteria are prokaryotic, their cell structure is simple and their DNA is located inside the cell, very small. The third Domain - Eukarya - includes familiar living things like plants, animals, fungi, and protests. Their cells are more complex. Their DNA is set apart from the rest of the cytoplasm, enclosed in the double-layered membrane of the nucleus.
2. The cells of organisms of which two domains are prokaryotic? Bacteria and Archaea Which domain includes the organisms composed of eukaryotic cells? Fungi, plants, animals, and protests Describe three fundamental characteristics that distinguish prokaryotic cells from eukaryotic cells. Eukaryotic cells are living things; their cells are more complex; DNA set arart from rest of cytoplasm, enclosed in double-layered membrane of nucleus
3. The organisms in one of the domains will not be discussed much in this course. Why not? Archaea: they have little medical importance; The archaea affect us only indirectly in their role in the ecology of Earth as a whole
4. What are pathogens? Why is it important to understand the fundamental cellular differences in different types of pathogens?
5. In addition to the living things that can be pathogenic to humans, what other type of pathogen is studied by microbiologists? Why are they not considered “living things”? Viruses: they have no metabolism and they are not able to reproduce themselves
5. Leaving aside the small number of bacterial species that are pathogens, what are some of the major roles that bacteria play in the biosphere of Earth? The bacteria play a vital role in capturing energy and raw materials and cycling them through the biosphere. Examples include the photosynthetic bacteria (cyanobacteria), the decomposers, and bacteria that convert nitrogen to a form that can be used by other living things.
6. What are the four eukaryotic kingdoms? Plantae, Fungi, Animalia, Protista Which of these include pathogens that affect humans? Fungi, protozoans (the animal like protests), and the helminthes (parasitic worms that belong to the animal kingdom). Which group of organisms in the animal kingdom are human pathogens? Helminthes (parasitic worms)
7. Viruses attack and parasitize what types of living things? Every type of living thing
8. What is taxonomy? What is the proper way to write the scientific name of an organism? Taxonomy is the science of classification – of grouping similar organisms together and showing how they are related to each other. When writing a scientific name, the genus name is capitalized and the species name is not. It should be italicized – or if that’s not possible, underlined.
9. Why are bacterial species difficult to classify? They all look the same and there are millions of different types on earth. What modern techniques are helping bacterial taxonomists classify bacteria? Bacterial classification is still being worked out and debated, but metabolic differences and DNA sequencing are useful tools. For now, most bacteriologists rely on the Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, the current edition of which...