COURSE CODE: - STB 111
COURSE TITLE: - Morphology & Physiology of Living Things (INTRODUCTION) -------------------------------------------------
LECTURE ONE NOTES
Biology as a natural science concerned with the study of life and living organisms, including their structure, function, growth, origin, evolution, distribution, and taxonomy. It is a vast subject containing many subdivisions, topics, and disciplines. Among the most important topics as contained in Biology are five unifying principles that can be said to be the fundamental axioms of modern biology:- 1) Cells are the basic unit of life.
2) New species and inherited traits are the product of evolution. 3) Genes are the basic unit of heredity.
4) An organism regulates its internal environment to maintain a stable and constant condition. 5) Living organisms consume and transform energy.
Morphology & Physiology:-
The study of Morphology and Physiology of living things can be traced as far back to early Egyptian civilization (based on their belief that only gods linked with living things/organims i.e. plants & animals) that influences lives. This belief was the epitome of the study of morphology & physiology of living things/organisms; which made a Greek great philosopher (Aristotle) then taught the importance of studying the morphologic & physiologic characteristics of living things/organisms, in an attempt to classify them based on the significant values attached to them
Morphology stems from the Greek words "morphe" meaning "form" and "logos" meaning "study." And in biological science, it refers to the form and structure of an organism, or one of the organism's parts. In linguistics, morphology looks at the structure and form of words in a language, the derivation of words and how compound words are formed. What the two usages have in common is the study of form and structure. Thus, the term "morphology" most generally refers to the study of things in their various forms, including changes in form over time. Morphology as a branch of bioscience dealing with the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features includes aspects of the outward appearance (shape, structure, colour, and pattern) as well as the form and structure of the internal parts like bones and organs. The biological concept of morphology was developed by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1790) and independently by the German anatomist and physiologist Karl Friedrich Burdach (1800). Although generally the field of morphology is divided into two distinct branches, which are:- * "Anatomy" is the study of the form and structure of internal features of an organism. * "Eidonomy" is the study of the form and structure of the external features of an organism. However, other branches do exist such as:-
* ‘‘Comparative Morphology’’ Is analysis of the patterns of the locus of structures within the body plan of an organism, and forms the basis of taxonomical catorization. * ‘‘Functional Morphology’’ is the study of the relationship between the structure and function of morphological features. * ‘‘Experimental Morphology’’ is study of the effects of external factors upon the morphology of organisms under experimental conditions, such as the effect of genetic mutation Summarily, it can be seen that:-
The biological study of the form and structure of living things is called Morphology which deals with both the external and internal structures of the organisms; and thus, it may be divided into two distinct branches: the anatomy and the eidonomy.