Labor and delivery:
Definition: labor is the process by which the products of conception are expelled from the body. Delivery refers to the actual birth.
Defi nition: during latter months of pregnancy, the fetus adapts to the maternal uterus enabling it to occupy the smallest space possible. The term Attitude refers to the posture the fetus assumes in utero; fetal lie is the relationship of the long axis of the body to the long axis of the mother. Presentation:
Definition: the part of the fetus that lies closest to the true pelvis A. Cephalic: head is presenting part 95-96 percent.
1. May be vertex, face or brow.
2. Vertex is most common and most favourable for delivery. Head is sharply flexed in the pelvis with chin near chest.
B. Breech: buttock or lower extremities are the presenting part
a.) Complete or full : buttocks and feet present (baby in squatting position)
b.)Frank: buttocks only presenting, or legs are extended against anterior trunk with feet touching face.
c.) Incomplete: one or both feet or knees presenting, footing, single or double or knee presentation.
2. May rotate to cephalic during pregnancy but possibility lessens as gestation nears term.
3. May be rotated by physician but usually returns to breech position.
C. Transverse lie: long axis of infant lies at right angles to longitudinal axis of mother (necessitates delivery by C-section)
Definition: relationship of the fetal presenting part to the maternal bony pelvis. A. Position is determined by locating the presenting part in relation to the pelvis. B. Client’s pelvis is divided into four imaginary quadrants: right anterior, right posterior, left anterior, left posterior. C. Most common positions (abbreviations usually used).
1. LOA (left occipitoanterior): occiput on the left side of the maternal pelvis and toward front, face down,favoralbly for delivery. 2. LOP (left...