THE MINISTRY OF HIGHER SPECIAL EDUCATION OF THE REPUBLIC OF KAZAKHSTAN Kazakh Ablai Khan University of International Relations and World Languages
On the topic:
Intonation system of English in the process of historical development
1. Intonation in English
1.1 Intonation: approaches, definitions, functions
1.2 Components of intonation and the structure of English intonation group 1.3 The phonological aspect of intonation
1.4 Two main functions of intonation
1.5 Intonation and linguistics
l.6 Structure and function of intonation
1.7 Pronunciation and intonation achievement factors
2. Intonation as a text - organizing means
2.1 Dynamic approach to rhytmization and intonation phrasing 2.2 Segmental and supersegmental phonology
Actuality of the problem. Just like Latin was the language meant to gather people as the Roman Empire went on its row of conquests all over Europe and later, during the Enlightenment Period, it was French, at this moment English has this function. However, as English has become more and more popular, people of all cultures learn and speak the language around the whole world. We should ask ourselves, then, how much English language is influenced by other languages and how much of this influence is acceptable. Even being English the most spoken language in the world, its pronunciation is many times considered less important than grammar or written comprehension. But it must be remembered that the four main abilities of a language - reading, writing, listening and speaking - have all the same importance. Or even, as history recalls: Register came only after oral communication. If the students are taught intonation at the same time that they learn vocabulary or grammar, like it happens when they learn their mother language, it would be easier for them to learn to speak the language naturally. That’s why I chose this theme for my course paper.
There are a variety of methods for recording intonation patterns in writing and the advantages and disadvantages of some of the commoner ones. The first three methods reflect variations in pitch only: 1. The method introduced by Ch. Fries involves drawing a line around the sentence to show relative pitch heights. 2. According to the second method the syllables are written at different heights across the page. The method is particularly favoured by D. Bolinger. This method is quite inconvenient as application wants a special model of print. 3. According to the third, “levels" method, a number of discrete levels of pitch are recognized, and the utterance is marked accordingly. This method was favoured by some American linguists such as K. L. Pike and others who recognized four levels of pitch, low, normal, high and extra-high, numbering them from 1-4. Since most linguists who have adopted this method have favoured low-to-high numbering. This notation corresponds to the pattern of the example illustrating the first method. 4. The fourth method is favoured by most of the British phoneticians such as D. Jones, R. Kingdon, J. O’Conner and G. Arnold, M. Holliday, D. Crystal and others, as well as by phoneticians who have successfully developed and improved it. This method has a number of advantages. Firstly, not only variations of pitch but also stressed syllable are marked. Secondly, distinct modifications of pitch in the nuclear syllable are indicated by special symbols, i. e. by a downward and an upward arrow or a slantwise stress mark. More than that. Pitch movements in the pre-nuclear part can be indicated too. Thirdly, it is very convenient for marking intonation in texts. One of the disadvantages of this method is that there has been no general agreement about the number of terminal...
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