Intonation Patterns

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Glossary………………………………………………………………………………….. 1 Introduction……………………………………………………………………………… 3 Intonation Patterns of Language Functions in English……………………………….. 5 Intonation Patterns of Language Functions in Romanian……………………………. 9 Intonation Patterns of Language Functions in Spanish………………………………. 12 Conclusion……………………………………………………………………………….. 15 Reference………………………………………………………………………………… 16

Glossary
Emphatic
Uttered, or to be uttered, with emphasis; strongly expressive

Falling Tone
When the pitch descends

Juncture
The line or point at which two bodies are joined; joint or articulation

Loudness
Making, emitting, or uttering strongly audible sounds

Pattern
A distinctive style, model, or form

Pitch
The degree of height or depth of a tone or of sound, depending upon the relative rapidity of the vibrations by which it is produced.

Prosody
The stress and intonation patterns of an utterance.

Rising Tone
When the pitch ascends

Suprasegmental
Linguistics . pertaining to or noting features of speech, as stress, pitch, and length, that accompany individual consonants and vowels and may extend over more than one such segmental element; pertaining to junctural and prosodic features.

Stress
Emphasis in the form of prominent relative loudness of a syllable or a word as a result of special effort in utterance.

Tone
A particular quality, way of sounding, modulation, or intonation of the voice as expressive of some meaning, feeling, spirit, etc

Utterance
Any speech sequence consisting of one or more words and preceded and followed by silence: it may be coextensive with a sentence.

Introduction
The term ‘intonation’ has been defined in at least two different ways in the literature. A narrow definition equates intonation with ‘speech melody’, restricting it to the “ensemble of pitch variations in the course of an utterance”. Not unexpectedly, therefore, it is very closely associated with the stress and rhythm patterns of language. Together with intonation, these are known as prosodic features or suprasegmental elements.4 (Lian A, 1980) Intonation has often been used interchangeably in the literature with that of prosody. When a distinction is made between the two words, this is often not explicit. The difference of usage varies considerably from one author to another and can, in our opinion, be traced to a double ambiguity in the use of the term intonation itself.1 (Grice Martin) Pitch plays a crucial way in intonation and can be modulated in a categorical way, with the presence vs. absence, or type of pitch movement, and in a gradient way, involving e.g. variations in the way a pitch movement is realized: the extent of the rise or fall, or the pitch range within which a pitch movement is realized. The two main tasks of pitch modulation are highlighting, marking prominence relations, and phrasing, the division of speech into chunks. However, it is not pitch alone which is responsible for these tasks. A broader definition of intonation includes loudness, and segmental length and quality, although languages differ in the extent to which they modulate these to achieve highlighting and phrasing. Like pitch, loudness, length and quality are auditory percepts.2 (D. Hirst, 1998) Intonation is used to carry a variety of different kinds of information. It signals grammatical structure, though not in a one-to-one way; whilst the end of a complete intonation pattern will normally coincide with the end of a grammatical structure such as a sentence or clause, even quite major grammatical boundaries may lack intonational marking, particularly if the speech is fast. Intonation can reflect the information structure of an utterance, highlighting constituents of importance. Intonation can indicate discourse function; Different languages have different melodies. These melodies “arrange” the vowel and consonant sounds of each language in a way which is specific to that...
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