Intoduction to Computer and Information Technology

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CHAPTER 1: INTODUCTION TO COMPUTER AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

2 Computer and Information Literacy

Know how to use a computer is a basic skill
Purpose :
• To succeed in business
• To function effectively in society

To fulfill the purpose we should be a computer literate and information literate

Computer literate

• Must be knowledgeable in how to use a computer

Information literate

• Must be knowledgeable in finding, analyzing and using information • The ability to gather information from multiple sources, select the relevant material and organize it into a form that will allow you to make a decision or take a specific action • Information – computer, other products, finance, travel, weather • Sources – magazine, publication, Internet

• By the use of communication equipment and software, computers can connect with information sources around the world • Up-to-date information, fast, efficient, cost-effective

4 What is a computer?

• An electronic device
• Operating under the control of instructions stored in its own memory unit • Can accept data (input)
• Process data arithmetically and logically
• Produce results (output)
• Store the results for future use

Computer system – a collection of devices that function together to process data

2. What does a computer do?

Input
• Data given to a computer during the input operation
• Data – raw facts – numbers, words, images, sounds

Process
• Manipulate data to create information
• Information – data that has been processed into a meaningful and useful form • Information processing – production of information by processing data on a computer • Data – arithmetic and logical

Output
• Information created is put into some form (e.g. printed report)

Storage
• Store automatically
• Magnetic – CD, tape, disk
• Paper

The Components of a Computer

• Computer System consists of: input devices, output devices, system units, storage devices and communication devices.

1. Input devices

• An input device is the hardware component that allows a user to enter data and commands into memory of a computer. • Examples: keyboard, mouse, microphone, scanner, digital camera, and PC video camera.

2. Output devices

• An output device is any hardware component that conveys information to one or more people. • Examples: monitor, printer, speaker.

3. System units
• It is a case made from metal or plastic that houses the electronic components of the computer that are used to process data. • This part is usually connected to the motherboard.
• Two components of motherboard:
• CPU (central processing unit)/processor

The electronic component that interprets and carries out the basic instructions that operate the computer

• Memory
• Consists of electronic components that store
instructions waiting to be executed and data needed by those instructions

4. Storage devices
• It is a device used to hold data, instructions, and information for future use.
• Storage media: Physical material on which data, instructions, and information are stored.
• Examples of storage media: floppy disk, hard disk, CD-ROM, USB flash, DVDs and memory cards. • Storage device: Records and retrieves items to and from a storage medium.
• Storage devices often function as a source of input because they transfer items from storage to memory. • Floppy disk consists of a thin, circular, flexible disk enclosed in rigid plastic shell. • USB flash drive provides much greater storage capacity than a floppy disk or Zip® disk but is small and lightweight enough to be transported on a keychain or in a pocket. • Hard disk provides greater...
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