B00624673 Discuss the various aspects of intimate partner violence and outline what needs to be taken into account in responding to the victim and the offender
As the definition written by Sandra (2006, p. 6),” Intimate partner violence is a pervasive social problem that has devastating effects on all family members as well as on the larger community”. Intimate partner violence, or domestic violence is more well-known to the public written by Donnellan in 1999 based on the report of Women’s Aid Federation of England, is the physical, emotional, sexual or mental abuse of one person (usually a woman) by another, with whom they have or had an intimate relationship. In recent years, the problem of domestic violence is becoming more and more serious. From the figures researched by the NCH Action for Children (cited in Donnellan, 1999), the second most widespread reported violent crime belongs to Domestic violence. As early as in 1992, the British survey estimates that there are 530,000 assaults on women by male in the home annually and Department of Justice Statistics also shows that the incidence of intimate partner violence is about 1 million cases per year for women and 150,000 cases per year for men (Rennison and Welchans, 2000 cited in Sandra 2006 ). Although domestic violence is very complex crime including different family members play different kinds of victim or perpetrator, however, according to these figures showed which highlight the fact that women are more vulnerable to be the victims in this kind of crime, this essay will mainly focus on domestic violence against female. The essay will be fundamentally divided into four sections. To begin with, the first section will discuss the history about domestic violence against women from the factors of gender, race, and culture and announce the severity of the crime in the modern period. Secondly, the essay will primarily enumerate and analyse the other various aspects including facts, reasons et al on domestic violence against women. Furthermore, the response to both victim and offender from multi-agency will be commented and finally some good and effective solutions towards the problems will be outlined in the rest papers of this essay.
As Phillips and Bowling (2002) indicate, during the Enlightenment European period, authorities think that ‘the age of reason’ and ‘civilization’ are unique characteristics of ‘white people’ and northern Europe, while other racial and cultural origins may be put the label of less rational, moral, and evolutionary potential, so the white supremacy and the dehumanization of racial others legitimized during this slavery time. Although the slavery was ended in 1807 in Britain, the term ‘raciology’ (Gilroy, 2000 cited in Philips and Bowling, 2002) became embedded in British imperialism and colonial policies against parts of Africa, Asia, and the West Indies, and also including the white working class in Ireland and England (Solomos and Back, 1996 cited in Philips and Bowling, 2002 ) and to be more specific, the PSI report (Reed, 1994), Black and White Britain (Brown), found that numerous black people prefer a hostile response from the courts. Culture also plays a very important role in human society, “For centuries there has been widespread violence and abuse of wives by husbands, policemen, landowners and in-laws arising out of a ‘hierarchical gender’ relationship, where men are dominant and women are subordinate”(Adams, 1998, p. 12) and “On top of what most feminists regard as the dehumanizing aspects of a capitalist system, there is a century-old domination by masculine values. In feminist theory, as Donnelly (1986, p. 37 cited in Adams, 1998, p. 27 ) wrote ‘many of problem that women experience may be attributed to the social context rather than to internal inadequacies…’failure to cope’ might be reinterpreted as an...
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