Internet Censorship

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1.0 INTRODUCTION

Internet censorship is control of the accessing or publishing of information available on the internet. The problems caused by the misuse of internet brought about are censorship. Since approximately 1995, numerous governments around the world have been addressing the problems of material on the Internet that is illegal under their offline laws, and also that considered harmful or otherwise unsuitable for general public. The nature of material of concerned has varied substantially. For example, Political speeches, promotion of or incitement to racial hatred, pornographic materials, etc. Few governments have attempted to ban or otherwise legislatively restrict access to "matter unsuitable for their citizens as distinct from material illegal to distribute to adults. A 1993 Time Magazine article quotes computer scientist John Gillmore, one of the founders of the Electronic Frontier Foundation, as saying "The Net interprets censorship as damage and routes around it In November 2007, "Father of the Internet" Vint Cerf stated that he sees government control of the Internet failing because the Web is almost entirely privately owned A report of research conducted in 2007 and published in 2009 by the Berkman Centre for Internet & Society at Harvard University stated that: "We are confident that the [censorship circumvention] tool developers will for the most part keep ahead of the governments' blocking efforts", but also that "...we believe that less than two percent of all filtered Internet users use circumvention tools". (Circumvention is the processes used by technologically savvy Internet users to bypass the technical aspects of Internet filtering and gain access to otherwise censored material) In contrast, a 2011 report by researchers at the Oxford Internet Institute published by UNESCO concludes "... the control of information on the Internet and Web is certainly feasible, and technological advances do not therefore guarantee greater freedom of speech. Ithiel de Sola Pool, who in 1983 published a really prescient book called Technologies of Freedom, predicted that the doctrine of "pervasiveness" would someday be used to justify quite "radical" censorship. That day has arrived. On Mozilla website; www.mozilla.org/sopa/ accessed 02nd November, the following was found on the page. “Protect the Internet. Help us stop the Internet Blacklist Legislation. On November 16th, Congress holds hearings on the first American Internet censorship system. This bill can pass. If it does, the Internet and free speech will never be the same. Join us to stop this bill.” Take action now. Stand with Mozilla; Spread the word on your website

1.1Background OF Study
There are various interpretations of the terminology internet. The seventh edition of the Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (2006, p.781) defines Internet as an international computer network connecting other networks and computers from companies, universities et cetera. It is also suggested that the word Internet is a shortened version of the word Internetwork. A detailed explanation of the term from Webopedia (n.d.) defines Internet as a massive global network of networks, also known as a networking infrastructure that involves data exchange between mass amounts of computers. The internet is decentralised by design. Each computer, known as a host is independent of each other and its operators can choose which Internet services to use and which local services to make available to the Internet. Information that travels over the Internet does so via a variety of languages known as protocols. The internet should not be confused with the World Wide Web, which is defined as a way of accessing information over the medium of the Internet via the Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP). In other words, the World Wide Web is contained within the Internet. The Internet itself, not the World Wide Web can be also used for email, file transfer, which has their own...
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