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ICT1 Follow-up
Teacher: Ildikó Reisch
wrote by: Laura Li

Title page1
Table of content2
Informations about DNS5

My topic was the Internet, especially the TCP/IP; the URL, the DNS and ISPs. To understand these concepts it is indispensible to know, what Computer Communication Protocol is. We can define it as a description of the rules computers must follow to communicate with each other. TCP/IP

TCP/IP stands for Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol. It is the communication protocol for communication between computers on the Internet or the way how electronic devices (like computers) should be connected to the Internet, and how data should be transmitted between them. History

TCP/IP was initially designed to meet the data communication needs of the U.S. Department of Defence (DOD). In the late 1960s the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA, now called DARPA) of the U.S. Department of Defence began a partnership with U.S. universities and the corporate research community to design open, standard protocols and build multi-vendor networks. Structure

There are protocols for handling data communication inside the TCP/IP: * TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) communication between applications * UDP (User Datagram Protocol) simple communication between applications * IP (Internet Protocol) communication between computers

* ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) for errors and statistics * DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) for dynamic addressing TCP - is responsible for verifying the correct delivery of data from client to server. Data can be lost in the intermediate network. TCP adds support to detect errors or lost data and to trigger retransmission until the data is correctly and completely received. URL

A URL (Uniform Resource Locator, previously Universal Resource Locator) is the address for a file that is accessible on the Internet. The URL contains the name of the protocol to be used to access the file resource, a domain name that identifies a specific computer on the Internet, and a pathname, a hierarchical description that specifies the location of a file in that computer. For example by the protocol is http, the domain name is ’’, and the pathname is everithing else:newfaq/definitions/url.html DNS

DNS stands for Domain Name System. It is a database system that translates a computer's fully qualified domain name into an IP address. (Every network interface on a TCP/IP device is identified by a globally unique IP address. Host devices, for example, PCs, typically have a single IP address.) Networked computers use IP addresses to locate and connect to each other, but IP addresses can be difficult for people to remember. History

The Uniform Resource Locator was created in 1994 by Tim Berners-Lee and the URL working group of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) as an outcome of collaboration started at the IETF Living Documents "Birds of a Feather" session in 1992. The format combines the pre-existing system of domain names (created in 1985) with file path syntax, where forward slashes are used to separate folder and file names.  Informations about DNS

Basically, the Internet is divided into hundreds of top-level domains where each domain covers many hosts. Each domain is partitioned into subdomains, and these are further partitioned and so forth. There are two types of top-level domains, generic and countries. The generic domains are represented by a three letter entry: • com (Commercial organisation)

• edu (Educational institution)
• gov (Government organisation)
• mil (Military group)
• net (Major network support centre)
• org (Organisation other than those above)
• int (International organisation)
Each organization that...
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