Cause and Effect, U.S. Involvement, & Scale of the Conflict
The Somali conflict was created by a succession of events. Back in 1991, President of Somalia, Mohammed Siad Barre, was overthrown by a coalition of opposing clans called the United Somali Congress. Four main groups turned the country into a battlefield trying to gain control over the country. In the meantime a 5th group seceded from the northwest portion of Somalia calling it the Somaliland Republic, with its leader Abdel-Rahman Ahmed Ali as president.
All the fighting in Somalia destroyed most of their crops creating mass starvation. The international community began to send food supplies to halt the starvation, but vast amounts of food were hijacked and brought to local clan leaders, who routinely exchanged it with other countries for weapons. This just led to more starvation and the international communities’ efforts seemed ineffective.
In March of 1993 the UN’s mission shifted and tried to help UNOSOM II gain power. UNOSOM II tried to reconcile the country and build a democratic state creating a secure environment. This organization was met with heavy opposition led by Mohammed Farrah Aidid and his faction. Several bombing occurred and soon war was inevitable.
On October 3, 1993 the US led an operation intending to capture Aidid's foreign minister Omar Salad Elmi and his top political advisor, Mohamed Hassan Awale. This battle is commonly known as Black Hawk Down where two Black Hawk helicopters were shot down and many US lives were lost. That day was a true battle; 1500 somalian militia men were estimated to have been killed. On October 6, 1993 President Bill Clinton directed the Acting Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Admiral David E. Jeremiah, to stop all actions by U.S. forces against Aidid except those required in self-defense. The White House stated that all U.S. troops would be completely out of Somalia by March 31, 1994. Impact of the Soviet Union Collapse...