International Relations

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IIState boundaries have constituted a major topic in the tradition of political geography. Political geography ‘is concerned with the relationship between political power and geographical factors. It is interested in how geographical factors correlate with power, such as how land, air and sea power correlate with a country’s political, military and economic power. Its focus is on area or space and their physical, human and spatial (space-related) dimensions.’ The countries of the world can be divided into two major world regions – the ‘core’ and the ‘periphery’. The core includes major world powers and the countries that contain much of the wealth of the planet. The peripheries are those countries that are not reaping the benefits of global wealth and globalization. A state is an area organized into a political unit and ruled by an established government that has control over its internal and foreign affairs. The study of political geography is impossible without a firm grasp of geography, geopolitics, globalization and small state verses large state. State borders have established a major topic in the tradition of political geography. Border analysis has focused on the international scale, since international borders provide possibly the most explicit manifestation of the large-scale connection between politics and geography. The locations of small countries are sometimes at a disadvantage to large countries because of their geographical features.

Geopolitics relates political power to geographical space. According to Ojyvind Osterud ‘Geopolitics relates political power to geographical space. The word was coined by the Swedish political scientist Rudolph Kjellén at the dawn of the 19th century, epitomizing an organic conception of great power rivalry and expansion. While early Anglo-American geopolitical debate concerned the relative importance of land power and sea power, German discourse centered on interstate rivalry in continental space.’...
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