International means extending across or transcending national boundaries. It also means involving more than one country. Promotion is an activity, such as a sale or advertising campaign, designed to increase visibility or sales of a product or enriching the position of an employee in the hierarchy.
International Promotion: It is a process to inform final consumers and other, foreign marketing channel members on the availability and value of a particular product.
As in domestic marketing, there are many mechanisms that can be used in the international market. These include advertising, personal selling and other forms of promotion. 3. Objectives:
➢ To get an idea of the influence of the business environment on promotion strategies. ➢ To understand the major decisions in international promotion. ➢ To get an idea of the promotion mix.
➢ To know the important problems in international promotion. ➢ To examine the role of export promotion organizations, trade fairs and exhibitions and personal selling in international marketing.
4. Business Environment and Promotion Strategies:
Because of the differences in the marketing environment, promotion is often a very complex problem in international, particularly in multinational, marketing. As in the case of product, the SRC can result in the failure of the promotion. Promotion is an area where many marketers do blunders. Foreign countries have their own customs, traditions and practices regarding trade promotion, gift-giving, etc. ignoring them could be disastrous. A foreign affiliated company, a joint venture formed with a Japanese partner, received clear instructions from the head office to advertise heavily at the initial stage. Difference in the business environment may call for different promotion strategies.
5. Major Decisions in international promotion:
Identifying the target audience:
Even for the same product, the target audience may be different in different countries. For example, certain consumer durables which are used even by the low income groups in the advanced countries may be used only by high income groups in the developing countries. In several cases the need satisfaction by the product varies between markets. For example, bicycles are basic means of transportation in countries like India and the important category of consumers are small farmers, blue collar workers and students.
Determining communication objectives:
The communication objectives also may be different in some cases. For example, when the product is in the introduction stage in a market, the emphasis of communication could be on consumer education and certain of primary demand. In a market where the product is at other stages of the life cycle, the communication objectives would be different.
Determining the message:
Kotler points out that “formulating the message will require solving four problems: what to say (message content ), how to say it logically ( message structure ), how to say it symbolically ( message format), and who should say it ( message source). Quite obviously, the decisions regarding the message content, message structure, message format and message source are influenced by certain environmental factors like cultural factors and legal factors.
The size of the total promotional expenditure and the apportioning of this amount to the different elements of the promotion mix are very important but difficult decisions. a) Affordable method: set the budget at what the company thinks it can afford. b) Percentages of sales method: a certain percentage of the sales is set apart for promotion. c) Objective and task method: involves determining the communication objectives and the tasks involved in achieving the...