The urge for peace and self-preservation has inspired man to devise institutions for greater international co-operation and avoidance of confrontation. Though this process of evolving international organizations has existed for long, it received a special impetus as a result of the scientific and technological development during the past few centuries. However, in the present century this international co-operation assumed new dimensions with the emergence of the League of Nations and the United Nations. It would not be wrong to say that the League represented the culmination of the long process of the evolution of International Organization. However, it also radically differed from the institutions created during the past few centuries. Meaning, Nature and Evolution of International Organization: Its Characteristics and Role.
According to Jacob and Atterton, international organizations are in reality “associations of sovereign states. They have government functions to perform, but they do not have the power normally assumed by the governments.” According to Potter, the term ‘international organization’ refers to “the aggregate of procedures and organs for uprising the unification of nation.” Nature and Evolution of International Organizations:
The origin of the international organization can be traced back to the earliest periods of the recorded history. We get sufficient evidences in the histories of India, China, Mesopotamia and Egypt regarding the existence of diplomatic practices, commercial relations, treaties of alliance etc. These treaties of the past, according to Mangone, are the first steps towards the formation of international organization. 1.Greek Period:
During the Greek period, treaties, alliance, diplomatic practices and services, arbitration and other method of peaceful settlement of disputes, rulers of war and peace, league and confederation and other means for regulating inter-state relations were well known and widely used. Some of the examples are the formation of Achaen League of the Hellenes etc. 2.Roman Period:
The Romans contributed to the growth of international organization in a indirect manner. They evolved certain military, administrative and legal techniques, which provided the basis for the growth of international organization in so far as they included members of other races and nationalities also. 3.Alliance of Christian Powers:
In 1305, Pierre Duperies, a French lawyer, proposed an alliance of the Christian powers and also suggested for the establishment of permanent court of arbitration for the settlement of differences among the members. Therefore a number of alliances and associations were formed. Some of the important associations formed during the medieval period were Hanseatic League and Uncleus. 4.The Grand Design:
This was the most ambitious project which constituted a milestone on the road to the development of international organizations. In1606, the Duke of Sully proposed a scheme which came to be known as the Grand Design of Henry IV. It was essentially a European Organization and not a universal organization. 5.The Treaty of Westphalia:
The Treaty of Westphalia (1648) was the next important milestone in the development of international organization. Though this Treaty did not formally create an international organization yet, it opened a new era in international relation by uniting the various European States in diplomatic conference. 6.Peace of Ultrecht:
The next important step in the direction of establishing international organization was taken by the Peace of Ultrecht in 1713 which accorded international sanction to new dynasties and gave a serious setback to the imperialist aspiration.
Apart from these measures, certain scholars and philosophers also presented their plans for the creation of international organization during the 17th and 18th centuries. 7.Congress of Vienna (1815):
The 19th century...