International Management Topic 13-16

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Topic 11:
Q1.Leaders are seen to be people who accomplish goals and objectives that ordinary men and women may find impossible. Leadership is the way leaders to achieve their objects by a process of influencing people and providing a work environment so that they and their fellows can achieve the group or organizational objectives. Effective leadership is important in achieving organizational goals as it fosters adequate conditions to define the goals need to achieve and the most appropriate way to achieve them. Nevertheless, especially when practicing leadership in MCNs, it is important to take into account the cultural differences in beliefs, attitudes, values and norms as they can impose challenges and hurdles in management. Leaderships can be also understood by the various ranking of positions, therefore leader with different ranking of position has different roles in the way to influence over their followers to perform actions that go beyond merely the set job descriptions. Q.2There are five approaches for understanding the process of leadership:

a)Trait-Based Perspectives '' a belief that leadership competences and traits are instinctive to some but not to others. Leadership competences include natural and learned abilities, values, personality traits (e.g. drive), ability to forecast the future, characteristics that lead to ability to create credible vision and inspire others to follow. Moreover, leaders acquired with different traits embody their type of leadership. These traits include drive (high in for achievement to be success), motivation (strong need of power for the benefit of organization), integrity (truthfulness and reliability in translation of vision into action), self-confidence (strong belief in leadership skills), intelligence (ability to process enormous information well beyond the average), knowledge (outstanding understanding of company’s environment) and emotional intelligence (ability to monitor one’s and other’s emotions to guide other thoughts and actions). b)Behavioral Perspectives '' a belief which focuses on behaviours as they determine leadership. It consists of two dimensions which are consideration and initiation of structure. Consideration reflects people-orientated behaviours, such as respect, showing trust and concern of other’s well-being; Initiation of structure emphasizes behaviours that define work roles. Leaders high on both dimensions is more likely to achieve higher subordinate performance. c)Contingency Perspectives '' a belief that nature of the situation moderates the relationship between the leader’s style and group effectiveness. It assumes that the success of leadership is related to interaction between the orientations of a certain leader’s style and a certain group. Leaders can be task or relationship orientated. Leader who is task-oriented tends to be better at creating high-performing group; whereas leader who is relationship-oriented tends to better in achieving goals. d)Implicit Perspectives '' It looks at leadership from the perspective of followers which believes that leader behaviours are not necessarily determining unless followers perceive the person as a leader. The perception is the result from developed prototypes or mental representation of leader through life experiences, therefore followers may have various perception of leader’s style. e)Transformational Perspectives '' It focuses on the process of a leader utilize his own charisma to influence followers to go beyond their basic self-interests for their work and organization. Different cultures may embrace different styles of charisma but overall, charismatic leaders are seen to be self-confident, strong own vision, and are deeply committed to goals. Q3.The factors include positive behaviours, such as being trustworthy, encouraging, an effective communicator, a good bargainer, and a team builder; negative behaviours, such as being uncooperative, egocentric, ruthless, and...
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