Location and Structure2
International Labour Conference2
International Labour Standards2
Obligation of Members after Adoption of International Labor Standards5 Supervision of Application of Ratified Conventions5
ILO and Mauritius6
Founded in 1919, after the World War I, the International Labour Organisation is an international institution responsible for formulating and overseeing international labour standard. It became the first specialized United Nation’s agency to bring together government, workers and employers to draw and shape up policy and programmes promoting decent work for all. ILO has encouraged standards and fundamental principles at work, providing social protection, strengthening tripartism, understanding between government, workers and employees and providing opportunities for men and women to earn decent living, as well as a sense of freedom, equity, security and dignity in the work environment. Since 2006 ILO conveyed 186 conventions and discussed various issue with member states.
Location and Structure
The International Labour Office is located in Geneva, Switzerland and is headed under the supervision of a Director-General, the permanent secretariat, professional staff, international civil servants and technical-assistance experts working in countries throughout the world to handle the day to day business of the organisation. ILO has a tripartite governing structure representing the government, employers and workers.
International Labour Conference
An International Labour Conference is held yearly in Geneva. Member countries send a national delegation of four delegates, two from the government, one from the country's employers, and one that represents the country's workers.
International Labour Standards
The ILO has formulated an extensive international labour code through the drafting and adoption of various standard-setting conventions and recommendations. The first international convention that was adopted in 1919 was the Hours of Work Convention, which established an eight-hour day and the six-day week in industries. A convention is similar to an international treaty and is subject to ratification whereas recommendations do not require ratification as they serve as guidelines for national policies. By 2006, the International Labour Conference had erected a structure international labour code through conventions and recommendations, which covered questions such as: •employment and unemployment: employment services, national development programs, and provisions for unemployment; •various aspects of conditions of work: wages, hours, weekly rest periods, annual holidays with pay, and allied topics; •employment of children and young persons: minimum age of admission to employment, medical examination for fitness for employment, vocational training and apprenticeship, and night work; •employment of women: maternity protection, night work, and employment in unhealthy work; •industrial health, safety, and welfare;
•industrial (i.e., management-labor) relations;
•social policy in nonmetropolitan areas and concerning indigenous and tribal populations; •protection of migrants; and
•trade unionism and collective bargaining.
Initially, the effort to build up minimum labour and social standards that would be internationally valid was considered by many as utopian. In these fields, international action used to be virtually unknown. But the freely accepted conventions and recommendations and the ILO machinery of mutual supervision have helped to improve working conditions and management–labour relations, protect the fundamental rights of labour, promote social security, and lessen labour conflicts. The international labour code is continuously revised and extended, to broaden its scope and to keep pace social and economic welfare. The following conventions represent the...