International Labor Relations
Labor relations are an important element of business, becoming more complex in an international environment. Labor relations are the way that the upper layers of management interact with the lower layers in the company's hierarchy. Because of the national differences in economic, political, and legal systems across countries, there exist different states of labor relations that international companies must face. Because of these differences, most multinational companies delegate authority over these matters to their foreign subsidiaries. Labor Union
Labor union or trade union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals such as protecting the integrity of its trade, achieving higher pay, increasing the number of employees an employer hires, and better working conditions. The trade union, through its leadership, bargains with the employer on behalf of union members and negotiates labor contracts with employers. The most common purpose of these associations or unions is "maintaining or improving the conditions of their employment". There are three major structures of union organizing: craft unionism, general unionism, and industrial unionism. Craft unionism is defined by the organization of a particular section of skilled workers. An organization of a cross-section of workers from various trades is known as general unionism. Attempting to organize all workers within a particular industry is defined as industrial unionism. Labor unions are often divided into branches, or locals, and are united through national federations. These federations are affiliated with international organizations, such as the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions. In many countries, a union may acquire the status of a legal entity and obtain a mandate to negotiate with employers for the workers it represents. In such cases, unions are awarded certain legal entitlements that allow them the right to collectively...
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