International Finance: Study Notes

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  • Topic: Tax, Current account, Balance of trade
  • Pages : 27 (8996 words )
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  • Published : January 18, 2012
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1) Market seeker design strategy focuses on current market, and current consumer’s needs for quick return on investment. For example US automobile firms manufacturing in Europe for local consumption are an example of market-seeking motivation. 2) Raw Material seekers extract unfinished goods used in the manufacture of a product. For example, a steelmaker uses iron ore and other metals in producing steel. A publishing company uses paper and ink to create books, newspapers, and magazines. Raw materials are carried on a company's balance sheet as inventory in the current assets section. 3) Political safety seekers acquire or establish new operations in countries that are considered unlikely to expropriate or interfere with private enterprise. For example, Hong Kong firms unvested heavily in the United States, United Kingdom, Canada, and Australia in anticipation of the consequences of China’s 1997 takeover of the British colony. 4) Production Efficiency seekers produce in countries where one or more of the factors of production are underpriced relative to their productivity. Labour-intensive production of electronic components in Taiwan, Malaysia, and Mexico is an example of this motivation. 5) Knowledge seekers operate in foreign countries to gain access to technology or managerial expertise. An example, German, Dutch, and Japanese firms have purchased US located electronics firms for their technology. Source: Investopedia

Question 2:

Political risk is a type of risk faced by investors, corporations, and governments. It is a risk that can be understood and managed with reasoned foresight and investment. Broadly, political risk refers to the complications businesses and governments may face as a result of what are commonly referred to as political decisions—or “any political change that alters the expected outcome and value of a given economic action by changing the probability of achieving business objectives.”. Political risk faced by firms can be defined as “the risk of a strategic, financial, or personnel loss for a firm because of such nonmarket factors as macroeconomic and social policies (fiscal, monetary, trade, investment, industrial, income, labour, and developmental), or events related to political instability (terrorism, riots, coups, civil war, and insurrection).”Portfolio investors may face similar financial losses. Moreover, governments may face complications in their ability to execute diplomatic, military or other initiatives as a result of political risk. A low level of political risk in a given country does not necessarily correspond to a high degree of political freedom. Indeed, some of the more stable states are also the most authoritarian. Long-term assessments of political risk must account for the danger that a politically oppressive environment is only stable as long as top-down control is maintained and citizens prevented from a free exchange of ideas and goods with the outside world. Understanding risk as part probability and part impact provides insight into political risk. For a business, the implication for political risk is that there is a measure of likelihood that political events may complicate its pursuit of earnings through direct impacts (such as taxes or fees) or indirect impacts (such as opportunity cost forgone). As a result, political risk is similar to an expected value such that the likelihood of a political event occurring may reduce the desirability of that investment by reducing its anticipated returns. There are both macro- and micro-level political risks. Macro-level political risks have similar impacts across all foreign actors in a given location. While these are included in country risk analysis, it would be incorrect to equate macro-level political risk analysis with country risk as country risk only looks at national-level risks and also includes financial and economic risks. Micro-level risks focus on sector, firm, or project specific risk. Political...
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