International Flow of Funds
Balance of Payments
Capital and Financial Accounts
International Trade Flows
Distribution of U.S. Exports and Imports
U.S. Balance of Trade Trend
International Trade Issues
Events That Increase International Trade
Factors Affecting International Trade Flows
Impact of Inflation
Impact of National Income
Impact of Government Policies
Impact of Exchange Rates
Interaction of Factors
Correcting a Balance of Trade Deficit
Why a Weak Home Currency is not a Perfect Solution
International Capital Flows
Distribution of DFI by U.S. Firms
Distribution of DFI in the U.S.
Factors Affecting Direct Foreign Investment
Factors Affecting International Portfolio Investment
Impact of International Capital Flows
Agencies that Facilitate International Flows
How International Trade Affects an MNC’s Value
This chapter provides an overview of the international environment surrounding MNCs. The chapter is macro-oriented in that it discusses international payments on a country-by-country basis. This macro discussion is useful information for an MNC since the MNC can be affected by changes in a country’s current account and capital account positions.
1. Balance of Payments.
a. Of what is the current account generally composed?
ANSWER: The current account balance is composed of (1) the balance of trade, (2) the net amount of payments of interest to foreign investors and from foreign investment, (3) payments from international tourism, and (4) private gifts and grants.
b. Of what is the capital account generally composed?
ANSWER: The capital account is composed of all capital investments made between countries, including both direct foreign investment and purchases of securities with maturities exceeding one year.
2. Inflation Effect on Trade.
a.How would a relatively high home inflation rate affect the home country’s current account, other things being equal?
ANSWER: A high inflation rate tends to increase imports and decrease exports, thereby increasing the current account deficit, other things equal.
b. Is a negative current account harmful to a country? Discuss.
ANSWER: This question is intended to encourage opinions and does not have a perfect solution. A negative current account is thought to reflect lost jobs in a country, which is unfavorable. Yet, the foreign importing reflects strong competition from foreign producers, which may keep prices (inflation) low.
3.Government Restrictions. How can government restrictions affect international payments among countries?
ANSWER: Governments can place tariffs or quotas on imports to restrict imports. They can also place taxes on income from foreign securities, thereby discouraging investors from purchasing foreign securities. If they loosen restrictions, they can encourage international payments among countries.
a.What are some of the major objectives of the IMF?
ANSWER: Major IMF objectives are to (1) promote cooperation among countries on international monetary issues, (2) promote stability in exchange rates, (3) provide temporary funds to member countries attempting to correct imbalances of international payments, (4) promote free mobility of capital funds across countries, and (5) promote free trade.
b.How is the IMF involved in international trade?
ANSWER: The IMF in involved in international trade because it attempts to stabilize international payments, and trade represents a significant portion of the international payments.
5.Exchange Rate Effect on Trade Balance. Would the U.S. balance of trade deficit be larger or smaller if the dollar depreciates against all currencies, versus depreciating against some currencies but appreciated against others? Explain.
ANSWER: If the...