International crimes can be described as “crimes against the peace and security of mankind”. International crimes are based on international agreements between countries or on legal precedents developed through history, and include offenses such as such as genocide, torture, and enslavement of populations. These are among the acts identified by consensus among nations as being illegal everywhere. (Dammer & Albanese, 2011).
The Foca rape case verdict in February 2001 was the first time that individuals were convicted for rape as a crime against humanity. The Foca rape case was prosecuted by the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (the ICTY) in an effort to bring to justice those responsible for crimes against humanity in the war in Bosnia. Prior to the Foca rape case no one had ever been convicted of rape as a crime against humanity. Rape causes serious bodily or mental harm and international criminal tribunals have indicated that rape can constitute genocide when it is directed toward destroying a national, ethnic, racial or religious group. Under international law the crime of rape is a physical invasion of a sexual nature, which is not limited to a physical invasion of the body and may involve acts where there is no penetration or even physical contact (Parker, 2010). The prosecution in the Foca rape case argued the use of rape in attacks on civilians was widespread and systematic. To support this allegation the prosecution worked to show that the tactic was repeated and continuous (systematic) and that what had happened in Foca was a representative sample of Serbian methods of ethnic cleansing in Bosnia (widespread). The court ruled that these acts of rape were recognized as crimes against humanity because they were part of a systematic and widespread campaign and the acts included elements of enslavement...
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