IN1 International Accounting Standard 16 Property, Plant and Equipment (IAS 16) replaces IAS 16 Property, Plant and Equipment (revised in 1998), and should be applied for annual periods beginning on or after 1 January 2005. Earlier application is encouraged. The Standard also replaces the following Interpretations: •SIC-6 Costs of Modifying Existing Software
•SIC-14 Property, Plant and Equipment—Compensation for the Impairment or Loss of Items •SIC-23 Property, Plant and Equipment—Major Inspection or Overhaul Costs . Reasons for Revising IAS 16
IN2 The International Accounting Standards Board developed this revised IAS 16 as part of its project on Improvements to International Accounting Standards. The project was undertaken in the light of queries and criticisms raised in relation to the Standards by securities regulators, professional accountants and other interested parties. The objectives of the project were to reduce or eliminate alternatives, redundancies and conflicts within the Standards, to deal with some convergence issues and to make other improvements.
IN3 For IAS 16 the Board’s main objective was a limited revision to provide additional guidance and clarification on selected matters. The Board did not reconsider the fundamental approach to the accounting for property, plant and equipment contained in IAS 16.
The Main Changes
IN4 The main changes from the previous version of IAS 16 are described below.
IN5 This Standard clarifies that an entity is required to apply the principles of this Standard to items of property, plant and equipment used to develop or maintain (a) biological assets and (b) mineral rights and mineral reserves such as oil, natural gas and similar non-regenerative resources.
IN6 An entity evaluates under the general recognition principle all property, plant and equipment costs at the time they are incurred. Those costs include costs incurred initially to acquire or construct an item of property, plant and equipment and costs incurred subsequently to add to, replace part of, or service an item. The previous version of IAS 16 contained two recognition principles. An entity applied the second recognition principle to subsequent costs.
Measurement at Recognition—Asset Dismantlement (break something down into parts), Removal and Restoration (put to original condition) Costs
IN7 The cost of an item of property, plant and equipment includes the costs of its dismantlement, removal or restoration, the obligation for which an entity incurs as a consequence of installing the item. Its cost also includes the costs of its dismantlement, removal or restoration, the obligation for which an entity incurs as a consequence of using the item during a particular period for purposes other than to produce inventories during that period. The previous version of IAS 16 included within its scope only the costs incurred as a consequence of installing the item.
Measurement at Recognition—Asset Exchange Transactions
IN8 An entity is required to measure an item of property, plant and equipment acquired in exchange for a non-monetary asset or assets, or a combination of monetary and non-monetary assets, at fair value unless the exchange transaction lacks commercial substance. Under the previous version of IAS 16, an entity measured such an acquired asset at fair value unless the exchanged assets were similar.
Measurement after Recognition—Revaluation Model
IN9 If fair value can be measured reliably, an entity may carry all items of property, plant and equipment of a class at a revalued amount, which is the fair value of the items at the date of the revaluation less any subsequent accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses. Under the previous version of IAS 16 , use of revalued amounts did not depend on whether fair values were reliably measurable.
Depreciation—Unit of Measure
IN10 An entity is...