The Church argues Lotherington is the most important key issue for the cause of the German Reformation. Lotherington quotes, "The Roman Catholic Church was intent on exploiting Germany". He bases his argument on the evidence Religion was the most important affair in the middle Ages. In this age, people would not live to an old age but would die quite young. Therefore, people would place their trust in God and subsequently, in the Church, thinking that by 'good works', and other practices such as purchasing Indulgences would get them eternal life. It was on the sale of Indulgences that made Luther write his Ninety Five Theses. Randell also supports Lotherington's view that it was Luther's protest against Indulgences that spurred the Reformation. Relics of Saints were also a money making scheme in which is mentioned by Lotherington which must have been frauds and Lotherington states, "...sceptical travellers noted enough wood from the cross to make a forest of crosses..."
However, as both Randell and Lotherington state, there were also other weaknesses in the Church bar indulgences that caused it to be corrupt. Randell and even Mullett to an extent all agree that other abuses in the Church were an obvious cause, although not as wholly as Lotherington. Randell argues that there was an impression of anti clericalism throughout Germany. He bases his argument on the evidence of practices such as Simony, Pluralism, Nepotism and consequently absenteeism. Lotherington also agrees with this evidence. Also, Randell states that most members of the clergy had little or no theological training, but viewed their positions as "sources of power, prestige and income". Priests and Bishops, although having taken a vow of celibacy, had either a mistress or concubine, therefore they were somewhat occupied with other issues.
Lotherington, Mullett and Randell all mention the abuses of the Papacy to some extent. They all agree that the papacy's spiritual concerns were very low. Popes engaged in sexual activities, even fathering children, and engaging in numerous wars. Mullett argues that Popes were more politicians and Warriors than Popes, using the example Pope Julius II. He also argues, however, that the Popes were respected, even Luther, for some time, treated the Pope with uttermost respect. Randell also seems to support Mullett's view, as does Lotherington.
It must be argued though by Lotherington, that many people were, where frauds such as indulgences and relics were provided, content with this practice. He also states that many abuses were part of the natural order of things. People in the middle Ages never knew what a pure church was. Mullett agrees with Lotherington on this statement with the evidence of the Great Schism, in which the church was split as one Pope was in Avignon while one was in Rome.
Therefore, Lotherington believes that the internal weaknesses of church were an important reason for the German Reformation, on the evidence that many Catholic scholars such as Erasmus did call for a reform, but it was other factors, such as social and economic factor that forced people to realise that corruptions in the Church were not right. Randell agrees to an extent with Lotherington that the ungodliness of the Popes conduct...