Types of Loads
1- Concentrated load assumed to act at a point and immediately introduce an oversimplification since all practical loading system must be applied over a finite area.

2- Distributed load are assumed to act over part, or all, of the beam and in most cases are assumed to be equally or uniformly distributed.

a- Uniformly distributed load.

a- Uniformly varying load.

Concept of Shear Force and Bending moment in beams:
When the beam is loaded in some arbitrarily manner, the internal forces and moments are developed and the terms shear force and bending moments come into pictures which are helpful to analyze the beams further. Let us define these terms

Now let us consider the beam as shown in fig 1(a) which is supporting the loads P1, P2, P3 and is simply supported at two points creating the reactions R1 and R2 respectively. Now let us assume that the beam is to divided into or imagined to be cut into two portions at a section AA. Now let us assume that the resultant of loads and reactions to the left of AA is ?F' vertically upwards, and since the entire beam is to remain in equilibrium, thus the resultant of forces to the right of AA must also be F, acting downwards. This forces ?F' is as a shear force. The shearing force at any x-section of a beam represents the tendency for the portion of the beam to one side of the section to slide or shear laterally relative to the other portion. Therefore, now we are in a position to define the shear force ?F' to as follows: At any x-section of a beam, the shear force ?F' is the algebraic sum of all the lateral components of the forces acting on either side of the x-section.

Sign Convention for Shear Force:
The usual sign conventions to be followed for the shear forces have been illustrated in figures 2 and 3.

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By: M.ZIA UL HAQ
MS&E- 04
Abstract:
In this experiment we come to know how different amalgamation of loads and distances causes the variation of bending moments across the length of a beam. Another attribute of this report is that it envisage about the agreement of theoretical values calculated with those which are calculate during the experiment. The experiment was designed to foster creative thinking and to make the study of structural analysis more meaningful by incorporating the concept of design, model, test, observe and discuss.
Regards Muhammad Zia ul haq MS&E- 04
Theory:
Firstly, to compare the theoretical internal moment with the measured bending moment for a beam under various loads, and Secondly, to measure the shear force at a normal section of a loaded beam and to check its corroboration with theory. The basis of this experiment is to give students a hands-on experience and...

...
Bending of a Beam
Senior Freshman Engineering Laboratories
Lab: 2E4A
Coordinator: Asst. Prof. Bidisha Ghosh
Demonstrator:
Concept
A transverse load is applied to a beam. The beam changes its shape and experiences bending moment. Internal stresses (bending stress) develop in the beam.
In the bent or curved shape, the material on the inside of the curve experiences compression and material on the outside of the curve experiences tension. In pure bending, the transverse planes in the material remain plane and parallel during bending.
Objectives
1. To measure deflections and strains in a simply supported steel beam.
2. To compare the analytical and experimental values of strains in the beam.
3. To use measured deflections and theory to evaluate the Young’s modulus of the material.
4. To note the source of errors in a typical simply supported beam experiment.
Theory
Please refer to the beam bending lecture notes as provided by Dr A. O’Connor in 2E4 class.
A steel I-beam is subjected to a point load in the middle. The beam is loaded within the elastic limit.
Figure 1: Bending of a BeamBeam deflection :
The deflection, can be computed for general loading situation by integrating the moment curvature equation. For Fig. 1, the theoretical value of beam...

...construction beam and find lightest weight material that can be used as an construction beam , currently we are taking strength of material course that helping us to learn more about construction beam’s design , we will be going over types of beams , types of loads and beams design , on our own we will research about the materials of beams and try to find the lightest beam’s material that we can use in construction according to our knowledge so far.
Introduction:
The universally and traditionally descriptions of civil engineering structural elements or buildings And one of the building’s principles, this is what they call beam, so basically beam is a long thick piece structural element of wood or metal or concrete, etc., that has an ability to withstanding stress ,some people they defined Beam is structural member designed to support loadings perpendicular to their longitudinal axis, but simply we say it’s the pole of a carriage in the building , as you see in the picture (# of pic ) these are beams of woods attached to each other to make the primal structure , I think this picture is an good example of construction beams,
in this project we going to talk about several things are related to construction beams, First of all we going to talk separately about types of beams, and then we will...

...business world, there are different theories of effective change implementation. The corporation this research focuses on is Duke University Children’s Hospital, which is highlighted in the textbook. The topic of the research paper will focus on the process of implementing change within the hospital. Implementing change within organizations is very relevant to this course. Not only is the course called Leading Organization Change, but the topics we have been focusing on revolve around methods of implementing change. With changes, organizations need to take steps to fully plan the change in order to ensure a smooth transition and acceptance (Spector, 2013). Research will show how Duke University Children’s Hospital assessed the internal and external forces that impacted the change and how they assessed if the organization was ready for change. Also, research will show what model and strategies were used during the organizational change along with an analysis of whether resistance to the change occurred and if so, how it was dealt with. Finally, I will strategize how to handle leading group changes within a similar context.
Often times, financial crises spurs change in organizations. This was the case for Duke University Children’s Hospital. An assessment was made by the key administrators that showed how dire their financial situation truly was due to various reasons. This resulted in the pending elimination of programs and reduced...

...In every organization, there is an overload of forces that may occur internally as well as externally that will impact organizational behavior. In order to understand what how an organization is functioning we have to concentrate on a broader perspective and we have to analyze the people that are actually building blocks of the organizations. Hence the study of organizational behavior means studying the structure, the functioning, the performance and the behavior of people in an organization. In today's world we interact with organizations that exist for accomplishing specific and well-defined goals through the behavior of their members.
As we enter a technology based century, the environment in which organizations operate is increasingly turbulent, rocked by forces such as competition and customer demands. Economy and globalization forces have dramatically changed the make-up of today's workforce, which is now the most educated and ethnically diverse in history, in addition to having the greatest representation of people. These developments are profoundly affecting the way in which organizations restructure themselves and develop their organizational mission. In this paper, the group will analyze how internal and external forces impact organizational behavior in an organization.
The organization's mission covers various areas of interest including the service expected as well as the upkeep of the...

...1. a force that increases the net momentum of a system
1. Momentum
2. Impulse
3. External Force
4. InternalForce
5. Law of Conservation of Momentum
6. Elastic Collision
7. Inelastic Collision
8. Perfectly Inelastic Collision
2. a force that does not increase the net momentum of a system.
1. Momentum
2. Impulse
3. External Force
4. InternalForce
5. Law of Conservation of Momentum
6. Elastic Collision
7. Inelastic Collision
8. Perfectly Inelastic Collision
3. Two objects collide, stick together afterward and kinetic energy is not conserved.
1. Momentum
2. Impulse
3. External Force
4. InternalForce
5. Law of Conservation of Momentum
6. Elastic Collision
7. Inelastic Collision
8. Perfectly Inelastic Collision
4. A force that comes from somewhere other than the colliding or pushing off objects
1. Momentum
2. Impulse
3. External Force
4. InternalForce
5. Law of Conservation of Momentum
6. Elastic Collision
7. Inelastic...

...Laboratory Three: Parallam Beam Deflection
Lab Group - 1st Mondays, Late: Jesse Bertrand, Ryan Carmichael, Anne Krikorian, Noah Marks, Ann Murray Report by Ryan Carmichael and Anne Krikorian
E6 Laboratory Report – Submitted 12 May 2008 Department of Engineering, Swarthmore College
Abstract:
In this laboratory, we determined six different values for the Elastic Flexural Modulus of a 4-by10 (100” x 3.50” x 9.46”) Parallam wood-composite test beam. To accomplish this, we loaded the beam at 1/3 span with 1200 psi in five load increments in both the upright (9.46 inch side vertical) and flat (9.46 inch side horizontal) orientations. We then used three different leastsquare methods (utilizing Matlab and Kaleidagraph) on the data for each orientation to fit the data, resulting in the following:
E: Upright Orientation Units Method One Method Two Method Three
E: Flat Orientation 10 ksi 103 ksi
3
0.981 ± 0.100 1.253 ± 0.198 1.065 ± 0.247
1.880 ± 0.046 2.080 ± 0.083 1.881 ± 0.106
1
Purpose:
The purpose of this lab is to determine the flexural elastic modulus of a Parallam woodcomposite beam by examining its behavior when simply supported and under flexural stress, and to analyze deflection data using different least-squares methods to fit theoretical deflection curves.
Theory:
In theory, a beam’s deflection can be mapped by the governing equation of beam flexure: EI d2y/dx2 = M(x),...

...On the Large Deflections of a Class of Cantilever Beams
Moses Frank Oduori, Ph.D.,
Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering,
The University of Nairobi.
Abstract
An equation for the determination of large deflections of beams is derived from first principles. Laboratory tests were carried out in order to validate the theory. The theoretical and experimental results were found to be in good agreement.
Introduction
In much of the study and practice of mechanical and structural engineering, the equations used for the determination of beam deflections are derived with the assumption of small deflections. This is appropriate because, in most mechanical and structural engineering applications, small deflections are a functional requirement. However, there may arise cases in agricultural machinery engineering, for instance, where beam deflections can no longer be assumed to be small. Then, it becomes necessary to develop and use equations other than those commonly found in the mechanical and structural engineering literature. Such an equation is developed and evaluated in this presentation.
An example of an application that would involve large crop stem (beam) deflections, is to be found in the design and operation of the combine harvester reel, as illustrated in Fig. 1.
Model formulation
Assumptions
The assumptions made in formulating a model of the deflected crop stems are the...

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