Internal Combustion Engine and no Diversion Required

Topics: Internal combustion engine, Critical point, Runway Pages: 12 (1898 words) Published: April 22, 2013


ETOPS are those flights conducted over a route that contains a point further than one hour flying time at one engine inoperative, still air cruise speed under standard conditions from an ADEQUATE AIRPORT. 430 NM’s for A-310 for one hour. We have 120 minutes ETOP’S approval from DGCA.

ADEQUATE AIRPORT : is an airport that meets the landing performance requirements of the aircraft ie. Ruway length, ATC, Lighting, Communications, weather reporting, Nav Aids, airport facilities and at least one instrument approach. Adequate Airports are selected at the time of planning ETOP’S routes. [Not necessary to meet PCN requirements. ACN may exceed PCN when airport is used in an Emergency – not normal use]

SUITABLE AIRPORT : is an ADEQUATE AIRPORT which at the ANTICIPATED time of use. [1 Hour before earliest E.T.A. to 1 Hour after latest E.T.A.] has weather reports OR forecasts which indicate the weather conditions to be at or above the approved minima. The X – Wind component for Runway expected should be below permitted X – Wind limits.


ADEQUATE AIRPORTS are fixed when planning route. SUITABLE AIRPORTS vary for each flight depending upon real time weather, Facilities available/not available, etc. applicable at the time of despatch of an ETOP’S flight. In case of an actual Diversion to a SUITABLE AIRPORT, normal landing minima will apply. Check Wx for SUITABLE AIRPORT is above landing minima for that airport before entry into ETOPS area. ADEQUATE AIRPORTS may temporarily become unsuitable if any of the requirements of a ADEQUATE AIRPORT may be temporarily unavailable.


Weather minima for airports designated as suitable enroute alternates under ETOPS Regulations are prescribed as under. It must be noted that the minima shown hereunder are for despatch release purposes only and in the event of an actual diversion, the applicable landing minima for that airport will be the controlling factor. Further, these minimas are for precision/non precision approaches at the respective airports. In the event ILS is not available, the despatch ETOP minima for that airport should be determined as per FAA Advisory circular AC 120 – 42A dated 30.12.1988 which lays down the following criteria.

1.Airports with 2 or more ILS on separate runways:
Ceiling of 400ft and visibility of 1600m or
Ceiling of 200ft and visibility of 800m above the authorised ILS landing minima; HIGHER. 2.Airports with ILS on single runway:
Ceiling of 600ft and visibility of 3200m or
Ceiling of 400ft and visibility of 1600m above the authorised ILS landing minima;HIGHER. 3.Airports with non - precision approaches:
Ceiling of 800ft and visibility of 3200m or
Ceiling of 400ft and visibility of 1600m above the authorised non precision landing minima; whichever is higher.

NOTE : * - Based on the consideration RW 09/27 is available.

# - To be used only when RW 09/27 is not available for operation.


There is no restriction on the Commander in changing the alternate in flight, after taking into consideration all factors, provided the aforesaid conditions are satisfied. In an emergency, the Commanders can act in the best interest of the Company and occupants of the aircraft.


Diversions due to land ASAP situations.
1. In Flight Engine Fire.
2. APU Fire.
3. Single Engine Operation.
4. Loss of Both Engine Generators.
5. Avionics Smoke.
6. Cargo Compartment Smoke.
7. Dual Hydraulic System Lo Pressure.

Critical fuel Scenarios are :
1. Engine Failure.
2. Pressurisation Failure.
3. Engine & Pressurisation Failure.

Depending upon the situation, 3 Strategies are used :...
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