Air Force Association. (2001). Carter Doctrine. Retrieved from http://http://www.airforcemag.com/MagazineArchive/Pages/2010/April%202010/0410keeper.aspx In late 1979, the US was shaken by Iran’s seizure of American hostages and the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. The latter event in particular was seen as a direct threat to Persian Gulf oil. President Carter, after a period of vacillation, used his 1980 State of the Union speech to lay out an explicit pledge to defend the Gulf by arms. His words: “An attempt by any outside force to gain control of the Persian Gulf region will be regarded as an assault on the vital interests of the United States of America, and such an assault will be repelled by any means necessary, including military force.” His pledge was instantly dubbed “the Carter Doctrine,” and it has persisted under his successors.
American Peace Society. (2011). Carter Doctrine. Retrieved from http://www.worldaffairsjournal.org/blog/andrew-j-bacevich/carter-doctrine-30 Afghanistan War I (1979-1989), the U.S.-led effort to punish the Soviet Union for occupying that country. The Beirut Bombing (1983), the name by which Americans choose to remember Ronald Reagan’s intervention in Lebanon. The war against Khaddafi (1981-1988), a series of inconclusive skirmishes with the Libyan dictator, culminating in the destruction of Pan Am Flight 103. The Tanker War (1984-1988), waged by U. S. naval forces against Iran to maintain the flow of oil through the Strait of Hormuz. Iraq War I (1990-1991), the first U. S. armed confrontation with Saddam Hussein, commonly but erroneously thought to have ended with the liberation of Kuwait. The Somalia Intervention (1992-1993), abruptly terminated by the notorious Mogadishu firefight. Afghanistan War II (2001-2003), launched in the wake of 9/11, but left in abeyance by the Bush administration’s decision to shift the weight of U.S. military efforts elsewhere. Iraq War II (2003), the resumption of...
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