Introduction To Interhospital Infection.First of all, let us know the definition of infection. In this definition, took from http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com.
invasion and multiplication of microorganisms in body tissues, especially that causing local cellular injury due to competetive metabolism, toxins, intracellular replication or antigen-antibody response. An infectious disease.
From Short textbook of Hygiene And Ecology for foreign students (pg. 108), give the definition of inter hospital infection (cited by WHO) as: Any secondary clinical diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms, which strikes (of an illness) the patient and the medical personal in the hospital.
Also stated that about 5%-12% of the patients may infected in the hospital because of IHI. (IHI = intrahospital infection).
For our broad understanding, here I also listing some definition that might be useful in future reading.
infection transmitted between patients infected with different pathogenic microorganisms.
infection by a pathogen following an infection by a pathogen of another kind.
State of having been actually or potentially in contact with microorganisms. As used in healthcare, the term generally refers to the presence of microorganisms that could be capable of producing disease or infection.
Nosocomial infection resulting from performance of laboratory activities by staff, regardless of how it occurred.
Nosocomial or hospital-acquired infection (terms used interchangeably). Infection that is neither present nor incubating at the time the patient came to the hospital. (Nosocomial refers to the association between care and the subsequent onset of infection. It is a time-related criterion that does not imply a cause and effect relationship.)
Occupational injury or infection.
Injury or infection acquired by healthcare staff while performing their normal duties.
The interhospital infections must be well understand because the neglected of this issue may brought many negative outcomes. Hospital is the main institution which play a major role in health-care services. The failure to overcome the interhospital infections issue might lowering the status and reputation of the medical institutions and thus keeping away the respectness and nobelness of this sacred medical field.
Looking through history, from the earliest hospital in the world till now up-to-date hospitals, the interhospital infection problems always arising but there are a lot of improvement have been done. Researches and studies have been worked across the globe. The conferences and new prophylactic measures also have been made in order to achieve a top notch facilities for the human beings.
“Nosocomial infections are widespread. They are important contributors to morbidity and mortality. They will become even more important as a public health problem with increasing economic and human impact because of: Increasing numbers and crowding of people.More frequent impaired immunity (age, illness and treatments). New microorganisms. Increasing bacterial resistance to antibiotics.” (Ducel 1995) Nosocomial (hospital-acquired) infections are an important focus of infection prevention in all countries, but in developing countries they are a major cause of preventable disease and death. The most important are: urinary tract infections, pneumoniaand diarrhea; infections following surgery or invasive medical procedures; and maternal and newborn infections. The organisms causing most nosocomial infections usually come from the patient’s own body (endogenous flora). They also can come from contact with staff (cross-contamination), contaminated instruments and needles, and the environment (exogenous flora). Because patients are highly mobile and hospital stays are becoming shorter, patients often are discharged...
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