INTERDEPENDENCE BETWEEN THE SPECIES
INTERACTION BETWEEN PLANTS AND ANIMALS:
Animals are depending upon plants for their food shelter and also for various things. ANIMALS HELP PLANTS IN DIFFERENT WAYS
1.Many animals are involved in the pollination in plants.
2.Fruits and seeds of many plants are dispersed by animals
3.Decomposers convert organic substances into inorganic substances so that plants can absorb them easily. SPECIES INTERACTION
All types of relationship between organisms can be divided into two 1)Positive interaction-which is beneficial to one or both partners. These include a) commensalism b)proto co-operation c) mutualism 2)Negative interaction-which is harmful to one or more of the participants. These include a)competition b)predation c)parasitism d)amensalism and e)antibiosis MUTUALISM-is an association between two or more organisms in which all is mutually benefited without any harm. It can be between plants and animals, different plants and between two animals. 1) Pollination by animals
2) Dispersal of fruits and seeds
3) Association between birds and animals-the cow bird and bison, the oxpecker and antelope, the crow and cattle. Here the birds get rid of the ticks and external parasites in the body of host and inturn the bird receives a constant supply of food. In the interaction between crocodile and the bird,Pluvianus aegyptius,the bird removes leeches and food fragments from crocodiles jaws. Inturn the bird receives food from the crocodile. Mutualism may be obligatory (where one cannot live without the other eg millions of ciliate protozoa and bacteria in the stomach of horse digest cellulose for the horse and provides 20% of its nitrogen requirement per day.These micro organisms are essential for the normal growth and health of the horse)or facultative (where both are favoured by living together but one can live without the other eg squirrels facilitate the extension of the hickory tree by burying the nuts. Here the hickory tree...
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