Intercultural Management Assignment

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PARIS GRADUATE SCHOOL OF

MANAGEMENT

INTERNATIONAL EXECUTIVE PROFESSIONAL MBA

SEPTEMBER 2010

22ND BATCH TAKE HOME EXAMINATION

Course: INTERCULTURAL
MANAGEMENT

NAME: DANIEL AFEDZI

STUDENT NUMBER: WA 10209

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. SOLUTION TO QUESTION 1............................................Page 3-9

2. SOLUTION TO QUESTION 2 ...........................................Page 10- 14

3. SOLUTION TO QUESTION 3 ...........................................Page 15- 20

4. SOLUTION TO QUESTION 4 ...........................................Page 21-28

5. SOLUTION TO QUESTION 5 ...........................................Page 29-39

6. SOLUTION TO QUESTION 6 ...........................................Page 40-44

1. How does culture affect the process of attribution in communication?

SOLUTION TO QUESTION 1

Meaning of Culture

Culture is the pervasive and shared beliefs, norms, and values that guide the everyday life of a group. (Cullen J. B. 2008) Culture is a concept borrowed from cultural anthropology. Anthropologists believe that culture provides solutions to problems of adaptation to the environment. Eskimos, for example, have by necessity a large number of words to deal with the nature of snow. Culture helps people become attached to their mechanisms for continuation of the group. For example, culture determines how children are educated and tells us when and whom to marry. Culture pervades most areas of our life, determining, for example, how we should dress and what we should eat. In Ghana, for example various cultures have a way they greet. For the people from the Northern part of Ghana for example greetings are an important element in their culture. In Wa as in the rest of Africa, failing to greet someone is seen as very rude. Wala people are pleased to be greeted in their own language, even if that is all that you can say. The standard greetings are: * Good morning -- Ansomaa (ahn-SOH-maa)

* Good afternoon -- Antere (AHN-te-re)
* Good evening -- Anola (a-NOH-la)
The individual who has been greeted will reply to you with a series of questions each of which can be answered "O be son" ("It is well"). (http://www.angelfire.com/ultra/twa/)

The Attribution Process
Attributions are the explanations that people develop to understand the causes of human behavior. Attribution "theory" is actually not a single theory or the work of one person, but rather it is a collection of many social psychological theories that describe how people explain the causes of behavior. Attribution theory is useful in helping us to understand why people behave the way they do as well as how to change human behavior. We assign the cause of someone's behavior to either (a) some characteristic of the actor (e.g., ability, personality, motivation) or else (b) to factors external to the person (e.g., task difficulty or luck). In the first case, we are attributing behavior to internal causes and in the second case; we are attributing behavior to external causes. (Carole K. Barnett, 1999) The fundamental attribution error (FAE) is the tendency to over attribute behavior to internal ("dispositional") rather than to external ("situational") causes. For example, we might judge a banker's behavior to be "truly" conservative in nature, ignoring that his or her employer dictates conservative action. Thus, we might fail to realize that the observed behavior is distinctive to a particular situation. Also the self-serving bias is the tendency to take credit and responsibility for successful outcomes of our behaviors and to deny credit and responsibility for our failures. For example, if a marketing director champions a product that turns out to be a success, he might attribute the outcome to his retailing expertise; but if the same marketing process produces a failure, the director might attribute the outcome to the...
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