Intenal Challenges Faced by Pakistan

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NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL
MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA

THESIS
INTERNAL SECURITY THREATS TO PAKISTAN by Naveed Safdar December 2004

Thesis Advisor: Second Advisor:

Robert Looney Feroz Hassan Khan

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Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instruction, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of information. Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any other aspect of this collection of information, including suggestions for reducing this burden, to Washington headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302, and to the Office of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project (0704-0188) Washington DC 20503. 2. REPORT DATE 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED December 2004 Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE: Internal Security Threats to Pakistan 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Naveed Safdar 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING Naval Postgraduate School ORGANIZATION REPORT Monterey, CA 93943-5000 NUMBER 9. SPONSORING /MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSORING/MONITORING N/A AGENCY REPORT NUMBER 11. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES: The views expressed in this thesis are those of the author and do not reflect the official policy or position of the Pakistan Government. 12a. DISTRIBUTION / AVAILABILITY STATEMENT 12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) 1. AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank)

Ethnicity, sectarianism and economic instability are fundamental variables of internal security threats to Pakistan. Religious extremism has created an unenviable image of Pakistan in the eyes of the rest of the world and has affected the country adversely. At the same time inter-provincial grievances could potentially cause serious damage to the federation. Despite recent economic recovery and sound macro policies, the absence of genuine socio-economic development has provided ethno-sectarian elements and regional forces grounds to exploit and weaken Pakistan internally. This paper argues that ethno-sectarian problems are major security threats to Pakistan and will remain a huge impediment to the goals of economic prosperity. Interdependence of these multifaceted threats and their overall impact on internal security is the focus of this analysis. Pakistan needs to address these national security threats and find a viable solution in a reasonable timeframe to find its rightful place in the community of modern nations. The immediate requirement is to introduce political, economic and education reforms and take bold initiatives to obviate present and future threats. This paper recommends three-pronged strategy to counter ethnosectarian threats to Pakistan: halt then reverse present trends, enforce rule of law and lastly introduce fresh incentives for socio-economic development. 14. SUBJECT TERMS Ethnicity, provincialism, Sectarianism, Jihadi Culture, Economic 15. NUMBER OF Instability, Interdependence of Economy and Internal Security, State Institutions, Police, PAGES 151 Paramilitary 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF REPORT Unclassified NSN 7540-01-280-5500

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INTERNAL SECURITY THREATS TO PAKISTAN Naveed Safdar Lieutenant Colonel., Pakistan Army BSc (Honors) War Studies, Balochistan University,...
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