Intelligence Quotient

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Intelligence is a very broad subject although it seems easily defined. A great amount of different meanings are given to intelligence as a concept from various cultures and sciences. Throughout history psychologists and sociologist have been trying to devise a way to reveal the level of intellect animals or humans possess. However this quest might not have a definitive answer. Intelligence therefore should be considered to be a broad and elusive concept with many distinct aspects to it. Research in the field of animal intelligence is essential to understand the more complex aspects of human intelligence. Ken Richardson, an honorary senior research fellow in the center of human development and learning at the Open University, in his book The Making of Intelligence remarks: "We can examine the nature of intelligence in its simpler - and hopefully more comprehensive - form in other animals, and thus describe it, and how it has increased in humans, more clearly."(9) Even though animals can provide us with explanations, in many cases scientists are amazed by their intellect. According to Eugene Linden's article in the Times, dolphins can to a command such as "now let's try a tandem creative" with amazing stunts of synchronization. Only through conscious thought can they understand the meaning of being creative. Moreover to perform such an act they must also communicate with each other in some way. This comes to show that dolphins do bear a form of intellect.(Linden 1) Another exiting animal is an African gray parrot at the University of Arizona which can announce true facts about all he sees. He will indicate that a tea mug is "Hot" to anyone who attempts to handle it. (Linden) Such amazing feats of thought are evident in other species mostly though in primates, which closely resemble humans. The question however remains. How does intelligence evolve and why? For the past decades it was thought that humans' mental development was due to the use of tools. Many studies have shown animals that are capable of using tools have less thinking capacity then others who don't. Another astonishing fact is that humans had a fully developed brain before they started to consistently use tools. The explanation that scientists provide is that the development of intelligence is closely related to the social skills of every species. The ability to play social chess is what determines intelligence. Great thought is required to anticipate an enemy's knowledge and possible intensions. As communities of individuals grows the social interactions become more and more complex. Keeping up with complex interactions requires a superior brain. This is what made humans so intelligent and resourceful. Many concepts of intelligence exist in the human society. Through the span of many centuries intelligence was a factor of discrimination. In ancient Greece smarts was what divided each social class. Even today higher education is reserved for those who can afford it. Nevertheless, there is no specific explanation of what intelligence is and what aspects of human thoughts it composes. The majority of individuals thinks of people without intelligence as savages or mentally challenged and those who are gifted as crazed scientists. Perhaps this is one of the many faces of intellect. Through the eons many individuals have been proclaimed geniuses. One of the most known and credited is Leonardo Da Vinci. Da Vinci has provided inspiration to almost every liberal art and science. From his famous Mona Lisa to his designs of the helicopter Da Vinci was extremely talented. Leonardo switched from painting to engineering to mathematics with incredible ease. Many scientists attribute his vast talents to the fact that he was ambidextrous and in control of his creativity and logic. Even though science has achieved so much, Leonardo Da Vinci's works still continue to amaze researchers. Another gifted man well known for his life's work was Albert Einstein. Although Einstein...
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