Authors Cohen & Swerdlik define, "intelligence as a multifaceted capacity that manifests itself in different ways across the life span” (Cohen & Swerdlik, 2010). Achievement is the process of using intelligence to achieve goals and meet educational and social milestones. In this paper the following areas will be discussed, the definitions and theories of intelligence, ethical considerations and an analysis of intelligence and achievements by comparing and contrasting assessments. The assessments chosen for this paper are the Das-Naglieri Cognitive Assessment System, The Multiple Intelligences Development Assessments Scales (MIDAS), the Stanford Achievement Tests, and the Wechsler Individual Achievement test.
Definitions and Theory of Intelligence
Intelligence is the ability to process and assimilate information. To use it with facility to solve problems, produce abstract thought, and formulate hypothesis and test them. According to authors Cohen & Swerdlik, “in general, intelligence includes the abilities to:
• acquire and apply knowledge
• reason logically
• plan effectively
• infer perceptively
• make sound judgments and solve problems
• grasp and visualize concepts
• pay attention
• be intuitive
• find the right words and thoughts with facility
• Cope with, adjust to, and make the most of new situations (Cohen & Swerdlik, 2010).
There are many theories of intelligence. One theory was developed by the developmental psychologist Jean Piaget. Piaget theorized that there are four stages of cognitive development; sensor motor, preoperational, concrete operational and formal operational (Cohen & Swerdlik, 2010). There is also the theory of multiple intelligence which is a theory developed by Gardner, discuss intrapersonal and interpersonal intelligence (Cohen & Swerdlik, 2010). Raymond Cattell also developed a theory of intelligence, “the theory postulated the existence of two major types of cognitive abilities: crystallized intelligence and fluid intelligence. There is also Luria’s theory “this approach focuses on the mechanisms by which information is processed— how information is processed, rather than what is processed” (Cohen & Swerdlik, 2010).
Piaget’s theory mainly concerned the attentiveness to the development of cognitive function and intelligence from birth to adolescence. With his first stage being the sensimotor stage, where baby experience their world through sensory input such as touch, taste, smell and sight (Cohen & Swerdlik, 2010). The preoperational stages is characterized by learning to use language, to see images and words that represent objects, has a singular viewpoint, and groups objects on the basis of a singular similarity (Cohen & Swerdlik, 2010). The concrete operational stage is characterized by the ability to recognize numbers, mass and weight. Can classify object on multiple levels of similarity and can order them (Cohen & Swerdlik, 2010). The final stage which is the formal operational stage is “an individual has the ability to construct theories and make logical deductions without direct experience” (Cohen & Swerdlik, 2010).
In Gardner’s theory on multiple intelligence the characteristics of the interpersonal are the capacity to comprehend people, what they feel, how they are motivated to empathize with them (Cohen & Swerdlik, 2010). Intrapersonal intelligence is characterized as the ability to understand one’s self, to have a self concept and be able to use one’s emotions to understand and find meaning in life and one’s place in it (Cohen & Swerdlik, 2010).
Cattell’s theory characterizes two types of cognitive ability; crystallized intelligence is characterized as skills and knowledge gained through being exposed to a specific culture as well as informal and formal and education (Cohen & Swerdlik, 2010). Fluid...
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