March 11, 2013
There are many definitions for intelligence and with these definitions comes assessments and achievement test to verify the information found in the definition. This paper will cover some of the various definitions and which one relates to the achievement test and assessments reviewed. One must first understand that the definition of intelligence is still highly debated and has been for a very long time, since the first intelligence test was created. Today’s psychologist has various forms of test and assessments to choose form and depending on the type of area of intelligence that wanted to be measured. This paper will also cover the reliability, validity, normative procedures, and biasness of each intelligence measurement, while being compared and contrasted and also considering the ethical implications in educational settings. Definitions
Psychologist such as, Howard Gardner and Robert Sternberg developed their own definitions of intelligence. Howard Gardner developed his definition from multiple intelligences, in his definition Gardner described eight distinct intelligences that were constructed of expertise and aptitudes that is widely accepted among diverse cultures. These eight distinct intelligence that Gardner referred to are; spatial intelligence, linguistic intelligence, kinesthetic intelligence, mathematical intelligence, interpersonal, musical, intra personal and natural intelligences. Robert Sternberg’s idea of intelligence was developed in the Triarchic Theory of Intelligence, this described intelligence as mental activity that can cause a person to adapt quickly to the situation of their real life. Sternberg referred to intelligence as being successful with three dissimilar features. These features are; analytical intelligence or problem solving; creative intelligence, or adaption to new conditions using past experiences and current expertise; and...