General Intelligence - British psychologist Charles Spearman described a concept he referred to as general intelligence. After using a technique known as factor analysis to examine a number of mental aptitude tests, Spearman concluded that scores on these tests were remarkably similar. People who performed well on one cognitive test tended to perform well on other tests, while those who scored badly on one test tended to score badly on others. He concluded that intelligence is general cognitive ability that could be measured and numerically expressed.
Primary Mental Abilities - Psychologist Louis L. Thurstone offered a differing theory of intelligence. Instead of viewing intelligence as a single, general ability, Thurstone's theory focused on seven different primary mental abilities. The abilities that he described were: * Verbal comprehension
* Perceptual speed
* Numerical ability
* Word fluency
* Associative memory
* Spatial visualization
Triarchic Theory of Intelligence - Psychologist Robert Sternberg defined intelligence as mental activity directed toward purposive adaptation to, selection and shaping of, real-world environments relevant to one’s life. While he agreed with Gardner that intelligence is much broader than a single, general ability, he instead suggested some of Gardner's intelligences are better viewed as individual talents. Sternberg proposed what he refers to as 'successful intelligence, which is comprised of three different factors: * Analytical intelligence: This component refers to problem-solving abilities. * Creative intelligence: This aspect of intelligence involves the ability to deal with new situations using past experiences and current skills. * Practical...