Intel Corporation is an American multinational semiconductor chip maker corporation and headquartered in Santa Clara, California, United States. Intel is the world’s largest manufacturer of CPUs and microprocessor. It was founded on July 18, 1968. Inventor of the x86 series of microprocessors, the processors can be found in most personal computers. Besides that, Intel also makes motherboard, chipsets, network interface controllers and integrated circuits, flash memory, graphic chips, embedded processors and other devices related to communications and computing. EARLY HISTORY
Intel was founded in Mountain View, California in 1968 by Gordon E. Moore (a chemist and physicist), Robert Noyce (a physicist and co-inventor of the integrated circuit), and Arthur Rock (investor and venture capitalist). Moore and Noyce both came from Fairchild Semiconductor and were Intel's first two employees. Rock was not an employee, but he was an investor and Chairman of the Board. The total initial investment was $2.5 million convertible debentures and $10,000 from Rock. In 1970, Intel completed their initial public offering (IPO), raising $6.8 million ($23.50 per share). Intel's third employee was Andy Grove a chemical engineer, who later ran the company throughout the year of 1980s and 1990s. Moore and Noyce initially wanted to name the company “Moore Noyce” The name, however, was a partial homophone for "more noise" and an ill-suited name for an electronics company, since noise in electronics is usually very undesirable and typically associated with bad interference. Instead they used the name NM Electronics for almost a year, before deciding to call their company Integrated Electronics or "Intel" for short. In 1968, Intel was distinguished by its ability to make semiconductors. Its first product was introduced in 1969 the 3101 Schottky TTL bipolar 64-bit static random-access memory (SRAM), which was nearly twice as fast as earlier Schottky diode implementations by Fairchild and the Electro technical Laboratory in Tsukuba, Japan. On the same year Intel also produced the 3301 Schottky bipolar 1024-bit read-only memory (ROM) and the first commercial metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) silicon gate SRAM chip, the 256-bit 1101. Intel's business grew during the 1970s as it expanded and improved its manufacturing processes and produced a wider range of products.
While Intel created the first commercially available microprocessor (Intel 4004) in 1971 and one of the first microcomputers in 1972, by the early 1980s its business was dominated by dynamic random-access memory chips. However, increased competition from Japanese semiconductor manufacturers had, by 1983, dramatically reduced the profitability of this market, and the sudden success of the IBM personal computer convinced then CEO Andrew Grove to shift the company's focus to microprocessors, and to change fundamental aspects of that business model. CORPORATE AFFAIRS
In September 2006, Intel had nearly 100,000 employees and 200 facilities worldwide. Its 2005 revenues were $38.8 billion and its Fortune 500 ranking was 49th. Its stock symbol is INTC, listed on the NASDAQ. As of February 2009 the biggest customers of Intel are Hewlett-Packard and Dell. LEADERSHIP & CORPORATE STRUCTURE
Robert Noyce was Intel's CEO at its founding in 1968, followed by co-founder Gordon Moore in 1975. Andy Grove became the company's President in 1979 and added the CEO title in 1987 when Moore became Chairman. In 1998 Grove succeeded Moore as Chairman, and Craig Barrett, already company president, took over. On May 18, 2005, Barrett handed the reins of the company over to Paul Otellini, who previously was the company president and was responsible for Intel's design win in the original IBM PC. The board of directors elected Otellini CEO, and Barrett replaced Grove as Chairman of the Board. Grove stepped down as Chairman, but is retained as a special adviser. In May...